Algorithms of Armageddon

The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Future Wars

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It is unclear if U.S. policy makers and military leaders fully realize that we have already been thrust into an artificial intelligence (AI) race with authoritarian powers. Today, the United States’ peer adversaries—China and Russia—have made clear their intentions to make major investments in AI and insert this technology into their military systems, sensors and weapons. Their goal is to gain an asymmetric advantage over the U.S. military. The implications for our national security are many and complex. Algorithms of Armageddon examines this most pressing security issue in a clear, insightful delivery by two experts. Authors George Galdorisi and Sam J. Tangredi are national security professionals who deal with AI on a day-to-day basis in their work in both the technical and policy arenas.

Opening chapters explain the fundamentals of what constitutes big data, machine learning, and artificial intelligence. They investigate the convergence of AI with other technologies and how these systems will interact with humans. Critical to the issue is the manner by which AI is being developed and utilized by Russia and China. The central chapters of the work address the weaponizing of AI through interaction with other technologies, man-machine teaming, and autonomous weapons systems. The authors cover in depth debates surrounding the AI “genie out of the bottle” controversy, AI arms races, and the resulting impact on policy and the laws of war. Given that global powers are leading large-scale development of AI, it is likely that use of this technology will be global in extent. Will AI-enabled military weapons systems lead to full-scale global war? Can such a conflict be avoided? The later chapters of the work explore these questions, point to the possibility of humans failing to control military AI applications, and conclude that the dangers for the United States are real.

Neither a protest against AI, nor a speculative work on how AI could replace humans, Algorithms of Armageddon provides a time-critical understanding of why AI is being implemented through state weaponization, the realities for the global power balance, and more importantly, U.S. national security. Galdorisi and Tangredi propose a national dialogue that focuses on the need for U.S. military to have access to the latest AI-enabled technology in order to provide security and prosperity to the American people.

About the Author

Editorial Reviews

“Few books have discussed the use of artificial intelligence in war and those few have generated more heat than light. Algorithms of Armageddon, written by two national security professionals who are recognized experts in the field, is the essential book for anyone trying to understand why the United States must win the “AI arms race” with our potential adversaries, China and Russia.” - Admiral James Stavridis, USN (Ret.), former Supreme Allied Commander of NATO
“National security is the realm of human activity where the risks of AI are most profound.  Those risks are being increased every day by potential opponents who are seeking to surpass the U.S. in military applications of AI.  Algorithms of Armageddon identifies these risks--and potential solutions--in a clear and accessible manner.  This book should be read and discussed by everyone." - Michele Flournoy, former UNDERSECDEF for Policy
Algorithms of Armageddon takes an urgent look at the harsh realities of how AI is transforming warfare and the dilemmas militaries face in AI adoption. The book is a call to arms for mobilizing the American military to use AI, not to replace human warfighters, but to make them more effective.” Paul Scharre, author of Four Battlegrounds: Power in the Age of Artificial Intelligence 
"As Secretary of the Navy, I received many, many briefs on new technologies.  I wish that they had all been as clear, concise and understandable as this book.  The authors unravel the complexity and supposed mystery involving AI.  And its findings are right on the mark." Former Secretary of the Navy John Lehman
"If you want to separate the hype from hysteria when it comes to Artificial Intelligence, there is no better option than the latest work of George Galadorsi and Sam Tangredi.  Algorithms of Armageddon is an essential volume for those seeking to understand the possible benefits of AI and for assessing what we can expect from this emerging technology in terms of its contributions and limitations on the battlefield.  It provides a scrupulously balanced perspective, with clear proposals to advance a national dialogue and a responsible approach to applying AI in our defense.  Because it wrestles with the policy, technology and moral element of the key security challenge of our times, this book warrants everyone's immediate attention." Frank Hoffman, National Defense University, author of Mars Adapting
"As the authors write clearly and compellingly, the near-term danger of AI is not that machines will dominate humans, but that humans--our potential opponents--will try to use it to dominate us. We must prevent that, and it will require our own military use of AI in responsible, effective ways." Rear Admiral Nevin Carr, USN (Ret.), former Chief of Naval Research

"Is artificial intelligence (AI) the next superweapon of warfare? What is AI and how will it truly affect warfare in this century? Can anything be done to stop the spread of AI and its impacts on future conflict? These are questions the authors try to answer in a fairly straightforward manner in this informative volume that addresses one of the most controversial topics in the defense arena today. This book is an excellent primer for anyone wanting a solid understanding of this future U.S. national security challenge.”—New York Journal of Books
"The book provides a first-rate treatment of the issues revolving around AI and the military...." —
"In a new book by George Galdorisi and Sam Tangredi, they focus on the coming impact of artificial intelligence on warfare. The book is entitled Algorithms of Armageddon which recognizes how a general scientific fiction quality to AI has come to dominate the public mind and those of many timid decision makers. The subtitle is the impact of artificial intelligence on future wars which is to suggest this is a book about future possibilities. But it isn’t. The future has already arrived."—RealClear Defense