In an increasingly globalized world, international treaties and conventions have only gained importance in economic, diplomatic, and military matters. While the Geneva Convention after World War II and the more recent Paris Agreement on climate change are intended to benefit every country, there are instances in which states do not commit themselves to such joint efforts. One such case is that of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which was formulated and opened for signing in December 1982.
3–6. “The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (A Historical Perspective).”
7. Andrew J. Norris, “The ‘Other’ Law of the Sea,” Naval War College Review 64, no. 3 (2011): 78–81.
8. Norris, “The ‘Other’ Law of the Sea,” 83–84.
10. John R. Stevenson and Bernard Oxman, “The Future of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea,” (University of Miami Law School, 1994), 488–89.
11. Steven J. Molitor, “The Provisional Understanding Regarding Deep Seabed Matters: An Ill-Conceived Regime for U.S. Deep Seabed Mining,” Cornell International Law Journal 20, no. 1 (1987): 31, 242.
12. Stevenson and Oxman, 490.
13. Molitor, “The Provisional Understanding Regarding Deep Seabed Matters,” 242.
14. Molitor, 242.
15. Randy W. Tong, “It’s Time to Get off the Bench: The U.S. Needs to Ratify the Law of the Sea Treaty Before It’s Too Late,” (University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law, 2015), 336, faculty.mcgeorge.edu/documents/Publications/tong_TUOPLR482.pdf.
16. The Law of the Sea Convention.
17. Tong, “It's Time to Get Off the Bench,” 336; Elizabeth M. Hudzik, “A Treaty on Thin Ice: Debunking the Arguments Against U.S. Ratification of the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea in a Time of Global Climate Crisis,” Washington University Global Studies Law Review, 9, no. 2 (2010): 19, 361.
18. Hudzik, “A Treaty on Thin Ice.”
19. Ben Dolven, Susan V. Lawrence, and Ronald O’Rourke, “South China Sea Disputes: Background and U.S. Policy,” (Congressional Research Service, 2017), 1.
20. The Law of the Sea Convention, 22.
21. “The Convention on the Law of the Sea,” U.S. Navy Judge Advocate General’s Corps.
22. Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate, 23 May 2012.
23. Ted R. Bromund, James Jay Carafano, Brett D. Shaefer, “7 Reasons U.S. Should Not Ratify UN Convention on the Law of the Sea,” Heritage Foundation, 4 June 2018.