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,en. William G. Pagonis, USA. Boston:
e than 38,000 troops and 163,000 tons equipment were moved into the the- Ver of operations in the first 30 days of ‘Uployment. The fabled “left hook” exited by U.S. Army forces during Desert ‘ torrn required the rapid movement of Army corps and their equipment, Mbs sustaining supplies across hundreds M miles of desert. This movement was j’bpported by more than 4,000 contracted
eavy vehicles moving along more than
^°ving Mountains: Lessons in ^adership and Logistics from the Gulf War
LtGe rvard Business School Press, 1992. 248 PP- Gloss. Ind. Maps. Notes. Photos.
jjevie\ved by Major General James A. rabham, U.S. Marine Corps
^hen I stepped off the U.S. Air Force transport at Dharain, Saudi Arabia, °n H August 1990, the airfield was a Scene to behold. I wondered if anyone c°uld possibly be in charge of this tumult * military personnel and their machines
Obviously someone was, because a T’Ung soldier approached me and said he a<l been sent to escort me to Major General Gus Pagonis. I found him working ?ut of a small set of rooms with a hand, °f staff officers trying to establish a ase of logistics support for the rapidly giving combat troops. He quickly let me bow that he was also there to support ,ae U.S. Marines and would do anything e could to assist them. I was so impressed by his energy and conviction, de- jPlte his obvious lack of resources, that decided on the spot to leave a Marine bfficer with him to act as liaison for the Marine Expeditionary Force. I never revetted that decision.
-The logistics challenges of Desert bield, Desert Storm, and Desert Farewell ^ere, indeed, immense and unparalleled recent military history. For example,
>°00 miles of main supply routes under le pressure of urgency dictated by tac- lca> security.
While the 100-hour ground war was Wreniely successful, its success brought 'Mth it many logistical challenges: hun- reds of thousands of tons of material to
be retrograded, more than 60,000 enemy prisoners of war to be processed and provided for, and a massive cleanup of the battlefield. For many logisticians, Desert Farewell was the ultimate challenge.
Gus Pagonis was well prepared to lead this herculean effort. As the son of an entrepreneurial Greek immigrant, he learned the risks and rewards of the workplace at a young age. The Army also provided him with the right education and experience: a superb professional military education at the Army Command and Staff College and Army War College, and a Masters degree from Penn State University in business logistics and operations research.
Professionally, tours of duty in both logistics and combat units—including two tours in Vietnam—engendered General Pagonis’ commitment to taking care of his soldiers. He saw the operational level of logistics as an aide-de-camp to several general officers in command. As a lieutenant, he discovered a unique management tool—the 3" x 5" card—which eventually became his management information artery during the Gulf War. He subsequently commanded forces at the battalion and division support command levels, and at the start of Operation Desert Shield, he was the Director of Logistics at the U.S. Army Forces Command.
A better preparation for the demands that were soon to be placed upon Gus
Pagonis could not have been designed. His leadership style and management techniques were central to his success in “moving mountains.”
As he walks us through his perspective of Desert Shield and Desert Storm, we are given a few details of plans, operations, and results, but the story is about the people who made it happen. We share Pagonis’ relationships with his superiors— General Norman Schwarzkopf and Lieutenant General John Yeosock; his key subordinates; and the soldiers who actually made the mountains move. Throughout the book, we are introduced to those leadership techniques that Pagonis found most effective: supervision by walking around, effective time management, and goal setting, to name just a few. These techniques
Lieutenant General Pagonis briefed Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney on 9 May 1991 in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, on the lessons learned during the campaign to liberate Kuwait.
are then analyzed and melded into the thesis that “the same principles which enabled a successful completion to Desert Shield/Storm/Farewell have significant potential for adoption by our nations’ corporate managers.”
The leadership and management techniques espoused in Moving Mountains are by no means new, but they are engag-
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Reportedly, Bull had twice been warn1
(ASW) encounter this reviewer has rea1
ingly and creatively packaged. To read this book is to know Gus Pagonis—his enthusiasm, his style, and his love for his soldiers. That in itself is well worth your time. He is a good man to know.
Major General Brabham, currently serving as the Commander, Marine Corps Systems Command, was the Commanding General, 1 st Force Service Support Group, FMF, during operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm.
Arms and the Man: Dr. Gerald Bull, Iraq and the Supergun
William Lowther. Novato, CA: Presidio, 1991. 298 pp. Ind. Photos. $24.95 ($22.45).
Bull’s Eye: The Assassination and Life of Supergun Inventor Gerald Bull
James Adams. New York: Random House, 1992. 317 pp. Ind. Photos. $22.50 ($20.25).
Reviewed by Norman Polmar
The late Gerald Bull was one of the most fascinating scientists of the postWorld War II era. While working on his doctorate in aerophysics in the late 1940s, the Canadian-bom Bull became interested in high-speed missile designs. This effort led to his dream of lofting satellites into space by firing them from gun barrels!
En route to this goal, Bull designed guns for the U.S. Army, developed advanced artillery, fired projectiles higher than anyone else, sold arms illegally to South Africa, and conceived and began construction of the world’s largest guns. His efforts brought him some successes (but little money), ridicule from professional colleagues, a prison term in the United States, and, on the night of 22 March 1990, five 7.65-mm. bullets in the back of his head, neck, and upper spine from an assassin’s gun.
Arms and the Man and Bull’s Eye, both by professional journalists, detail Bull’s life, work, accomplishments, and failures. Lowther’s work contains more personal information on Bull and his large, loving family. Adams spends considerable space in setting the stage, telling the reader about the political-military situation in the Middle East, Africa, and other areas where Bull was involved in arms work. Both books are well written, although Lowther’s style flows the more smoothly of the two.
Among Bull’s early supporters were senior U.S. Army officers who recognized his genius in ballistics. They sponsored his early artillery work and helped him establish his unique research and testing center, which straddled the U.S.- Canadian border. Bull also came into contact with the U.S. Navy, which supplied gun barrels for his satellite-launching project. These included 16-inch (406-mm.) barrels used in Project HARP (High Altitude Research Project) in Barbados during the early 1960s.
Arrested and tried for selling guns and shells to South Africa during a weapons embargo, Bull spent four-and- a-half months in a U.S. federal prison in 1980. Subsequently denied contracts from the U.S. government, the embittered ballistics expert found new customers in China, Chile, Israel, Yugoslavia, and Iraq. Saddam Hussein used Bull’s long-range artillery with great effectiveness in the Iran-lraq conflict. He also contracted with Bull to design and build five “superguns,” given the code name Project Babylon. The authors differ in their description of the number and size of guns in this program, as did most newspaper and magazine accounts of the massive Iraqi arms buildup. Lowther’s description of the ultimate superguns—the planned 1,000mm. diameter weapon with a barrel 511- 2/3 feet long—is the more accurate of the two accounts. These giant guns would have been suitable only for artillery testing in the empty western zone of Iraq, bringing that country into the space age by 1993.
While working on these weapons, Bull was murdered. Twenty days later, British customs officials seized eight steel tubes about to be exported to Iraq. They are believed to have been intended for a smooth-bore gun barrel some 150 feet long. Within a few days, other shipments of gun components from a number of countries were being identified and the “scandal” hit the newspaper headlines.
Did Western governments know about the superguns before the British seizure?
Adams says no: “the supergun through the cracks” of Western intelb' gence. Lowther takes the opposite vie" Explaining why the British governmenI did not pursue criminal charges relate to the illegal export attempt, he write8, “The defense would have argued that the British government had known from the start about Project Babylon and had done nothing to stop it. . . . [such arguments]" backed up by documentary evidence if' eluding letters from the Belgian govefl1' ment dated late 1988—would have constituted a major embarrassment f°r Downing Street.” .
Another mystery: Who shot Bull Here, the authors agree that it was m°81 likely an operative of the Israeli MossaU to stop working with Iraq. While the SU" perguns were not a direct threat to Israe1, the Mossad hit may have been intend6’ as a warning to other scientists not to help Iraq. But the authors even raise question8 about this conclusion.
A year after Bull was killed, after th6 Persian Gulf War, officials from d*6 United Nations supervised the destru6' tion of this enigmatic genius’s unfinish6 guns in the mountains north of Baghdad
Both Arms and the Man and Bull’s E)1 are worth reading, but many question8 about Gerald Bull and his superguns Wi remain afterward.
Norman Polmar is a frequent contributor to
Scorpion in the Sea: The Goldsborough Incident
P. T. Deutermann. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University Press, 1992. 464 pp. $19.95 ($17.95).
Reviewed by Rear Admiral M. A. McDevitt, U.S. Navy
P. T. Deutermann, a retired capta111’ former destroyer squadron command61' and destroyer commanding officer has written a page turner in the best Ton1 Clancy tradition. A frequent contributoj to Proceedings, Deutermann has turn6 his writing talent to fiction with good effect. Scorpion in the Sea is exciting generally credible.
Written in the style perfected by Ah8' tair MacLean and, later, Tom Clancy, ^ novel is a series of specific snapshots 0 time with quick “cuts” from one local6 to another. This now-familiar device lends itself to a fast-paced yarn that cm' minates in one of the most exciting scriptions of an antisubmarine warfaf
The Russians aren’t the bad guys
U 'he Libyans who somehow manage to . train a crew competent enough to sail the M Akrab—one of their Foxtrot-class it lese' submarines—across the Atlantic
i °n a revenge mission. They take station .. off Mayport, Florida, their target, the USS e £°ral Sea (CV-43), which took part in e *"e 1983 raid on Libya and will be a site I'"8 duck when she returns to Mayport
- r°rn Caribbean exercises.
- Most of the naval readers of this re-
r Vlew will, at this point, say, “Come on,
e ^ho’s going to believe that? A Libyan
That’s the clever hook in Deuter- mann’s plot. It is exactly how most of the ®a^al officers in the story react. No one . e>'eves such a mission is possible. This l|’ what makes Scorpion such a good read: he inherent tension between a good de- Jlroyer-versus-submarine story, overlaid y 'he equally intriguing problem facing 'he hero, Commander Mike Montgomery, T'Pper of the old destroyer Goldsbor- °l<gh trying to convince his superiors that here really is a submarine lurking off
Montgomery is a seagoing sailor who disdains “shore-duty pukes” and staff "denies.” A big strapping destroyer jhan, he comes off like a blend of Travis McGee and Don Johnson. A bachelor, Montgomery drives a fancy sports car, as a drunken parrot named Hooker who SWears like an old bos’n’s mate, lives in a sPacious houseboat moored near a Huaint waterfront saloon, and manages to 8et involved in a torrid love affair with 'he wife of Captain J. W. Martinson, the ruiser-Destroyer Group 12’s Chief of taff. Just your typical destroyer CO!
Montgomery’s destroyer squadron j-ornmander is a wise and conscientious °ss who tries to save his headstrong dipper from himself. When he becomes convinced that the submarine threat to the Coral Sea is real, he puts has career on he line—disobeying the admiral’s orders ^and sends the Goldsborough to sea, a'°tie, to deal with the Libyan Foxtrot. In he real world, this would be tactical lunacy, but the author manages to ratio- nahze this decision in a way to keep the story ]ine going without too great an of- ense to one’s common sense.
Martinson is a man obsessed with faking flag without making any waves. Montgomery makes waves, however; he’s constantly in the Chief of Staff’s doghouse because he keeps publicly blasting lhe shore establishment when it fails to Measure up. Martinson thinks Montgomery is a loose cannon who ought to e’e fired, and he’s convinced his boss that Montgomery and the Goldsborough are §ood for nothing but tasks too menial for anyone else. As a result, when a local fisherman reports seeing a U-boat off Mayport, the old destroyer is sent to investigate. No one expects them to find anything, but sending the Goldsborough on a wild goose chase will at least keep the locals off Group 12’s back.
Of course, the Goldsborough does find something, thanks to a talented ASW officer who is a computer wizard, a wise old chief sonar man, and a clear-thinking executive officer. Deutermann skillfully cuts back and forth between the destroyer and the Al Akrab, exploring the ASW cat- and-mouse game while filling the narrative with enough naval “techno-babble” to satisfy even the most hardened adventure novel connoisseur.
Scorpion reaches an exciting and not altogether predictable climax as the Goldsborough, the Al Akrab, and the Coral Sea mix it up in the waters off Mayport. Diane, Martinson’s drop-dead good-looking wife, plays a key role when it’s obvious the Goldsborough is in over her head.
Deutermann’s first novel is great light reading for the beach this summer and will probably spark some interesting wardroom bull sessions. It certainly is not perfect, however. To paraphrase my aviator friends, the book has both “goods” and “others.” A couple of “others” stand out. Scorpion needed a tougher editor; it is simply too long because of too many superfluous mood-setting background descriptions. It also takes a consistently cynical view regarding the integrity and motivations surrounding virtually every aspect of the peacetime Navy.
In the real-world Navy I serve in, most individuals are trying to do their best because they are professionals. In Deuter- mann’s fictional world, nearly everyone avoids candor and making decisions on the merits of the case; they appear obsessed with how everything they do or say will play “politically.” They are worried about a misstep lest it cost them a promotion. I concede a certain degree of this atmosphere is a necessary plot device, but it is a device that is carried to unrealistic and tiresome excess.
If Deutermann were just another novelist, this portrayal would not matter. But he is Captain P. T. Deutermann, U.S. Navy (Retired), and his naval background is touted on the book jacket, lending credibility to the story but, unfortunately, also to his unwarranted and inaccurate description of a cynical careerist Navy.
A former member of the U.S. Naval Institute Editorial Board and Board of Control, Admiral McDevitt is Commander Cruiser-Destroyer Group Two and the George Washington Battle Group.
When You Give Blood You Give Another Birthday, Another Pate, Another Pance, Another Laugh,
American Red Cross
Please Give Blood.
Books of Interest
By Lieutenant Commander Thomas J. Cutler, U.S. Navy (Retired)
Recognizing the somewhat prohibitive cost of frequently replacing World Naval Weapons Systems, while at the same time realizing the need for updated information, this essential reference work has been given new life in the form of a supplement. Like the original work, this update contains complete data on the world’s weapons, with additional expert commentary on technological innovations and system comparisons. Neither the data nor the 300 photographs and line drawings are repeated from the original work, and the index is keyed to both the supplement and the 1991/92 Guide.
The Future of Air Power in the Aftermath of the Gulf War
Richard H. Schultz, Jr., and Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr. Maxwell Air Force Base: Air University Press, 1992. 386 pp. Figs. Ind. Notes. Tables. Free. Order direct:Air Univ. Press/401 Chennault Circle/Maxwell Air Force Base, AL 36112-6128.
In April 1991 a conference co-sponsored by the Air University and Tufts’ Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy was held to discuss future aerospace challenges and missions. The papers resulting from this conference are collected here and cover a wide variety of topics, including strategic factors, power projection, deterrence and compellence, force structures, and research, development, and acquisition. The authors are specialists from academia, the military, government, business, and the media; their essays are informative food for thought.
Reconstituting America’s Defense: The New U.S. National Security Strategy
James J. Tritten and Paul N. Stockton, editors. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1992. 192 pp. Bib. Ind. Notes. $42.95 ($38.65).
With chapters like “A New American Strategy in Asia,” “Strategic Nuclear Policy in a Time of Fundamental Change,” and “The Means to Deliver: Implications of the New
WORLD NAVAL WEAPONS SYSTEMS
National Security Strategy for Maritime Forces,” this collection of thought-provoking essays by experts in their fields analyzes the Regional Defense Strategy proposed by the Bush administration. The result is useful for real and would-be strategic thinkers.
Small Craft Navies
Christopher Chant. New York: Sterling Publishing, 1993. 160 pp. Illus. Photos. $29.95 ($26.95).
Included in this up-to-date survey of the world’s small craft navies is a detailed analytical discussion of such craft currently in service, enhanced by a technical directory of more than 100 small craft designs. Current photographs and detailed data for each type are provided.
Strategic Atlas: A Comparative Geopolitics of the World’s Powers: 3rd Edition
Gerard Chaliand and Jean-Pierre Rageau. New York: Harper Collins, 1993. 225 pp. Illus. Maps. Tables. $18.00 ($16.20) paper.
Colorful maps and data tables are accompanied by brief narratives to depict many of the world’s strategic factors. Cultural, economy maritime, historical, political, demograph10' and geographic information is all present® graphically. The Los Angeles Times calls tl>|S book “an exercise in geographical concious ness-raising as well as an invaluable referent for deciphering the headlines in today’s news‘ paper.”
The Sword of Orion
Robin A. White. New York: Crown Publishing, 1993. 280 pp. $21.00 ($18.90).
In this techno-thriller novel, a highly modifi^ P-3 Orion carries a specially qualified teal11 deep into one of Islam’s holiest shrines on a mission with vital stakes. This is intrigue, tef" rorism, nuclear brinkmanship, courage, tread1' ery, love, fanatical hate, and exciting aeria feats all rolled into one.
Tales of Tulagi: Memoirs of World War II
Cdr. John M. Searles, USNR (Ret.). New York- Vantage Press, 1992. 95 pp. Gloss. Photos. $15-® ($13.50).
Commander Searles served in World War A as a PT-boat officer. His memories includ6 shooting billiards with actor Robert M°nt' gomery and shooting crocodiles with Lieu' tenant John F. Kennedy, as well as the hairraising experiences of dark nights opposite the “Tokyo Express.”
This is Stealth: The F-117 and B-2 in Color
Erik Simonsen. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 199290 pp. Photos. $29.95 ($26.95).
Full-color treatment is given to these two UI1' usual aircraft in this predominantly phot0‘ graphic book. Not only are the aircraft depicted at virtually every conceivable ang'e’ but close-up shots of the cockpits are also ft8' tured. The photography is extremely hiS*1 quality and the captions, though brief, are nonetheless informative.
United States Forces in New Zealand 1942-1945
Denys Bevan. Alexandria, New Zealand: Macpherson Publishing, 1992. 408 pp. Append- Bib. Gloss. Ind. Maps. Photos. Tables. $18.00 paper. Order from: Col. Ed Driscoll, USMC (Ret.)/l 5526 Ridgecrest Drive/Dumfries, VA 22026/(703)670-3362.
The author originally intended this to be “ record of the U.S. naval ships that called at New Zealand ports during World War II, his research expanded to cover all U-s' troops—Army, Navy, and Marine Cofp’j units—that visited between January 1942 an
Member 1945. Written in engaging, descrip- tlve prose, the book sets the stage for Japanese aggression in the Pacific, and Bevan captUres the apprehension and anger felt among ^ew Zealanders, from government leaders to I16 man on the street in Auckland and hristchurch. Thorough lists and the five ap- Pjndixes will appeal to the history student; the "Orld War II veteran will appreciate this help ln Walking down memory lane.
Marine Corps Scout-Sniper: World 'ar II and Korea
feter R Senich. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press,
"3- 240 pp. Illus. Photos. $39.95 ($35.95).
men, mission, equipment, and deeds of 9e relatively few but potent scout-snipers that ^rved in the Marines in World War II and Korea are depicted in what the author de- Scr'bes as “a delicate balance between what Was actually employed by combat personnel at |he field level as opposed to what the ‘of- •oial’ Marine Corps position was in many cases.” ""men and the Use of Military Force
^uth H. Howes and Michael R. Stevenson, editors. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, ‘"3- 255 pp. Bib. Tables. $35.00 ($31.50).
s there a fundamental difference in the way "'"men and men utilize force and view its use °n the international scale? Various experts at- [empt to answer that question by examining °th the theoretical and practical aspects of "e matter, analyzing stated and written attitudes and presenting revealing data concern- lng the roles women actually play in the use “I force, such as in the military and law enticement, in revolutionary struggles, and in he development of nuclear weapons.
Smithsonian’s Great Battles of the Civil War
New York: MasterVision, 1992. Color. 60 to 84 min. $29.95 each. To order, phone toll free:(800) 846-0123.
In seven different video volumes, the great battles of the Civil War are re-created. Creative effects are incorporated by using models, reenactments, actual photographs, museum pieces, and readings by personalities such as Charlton Heston, Richard Dreyfuss, and Ossie Davis. The authenticity is ensured by a Historical Advisory Board that consists of an impressive list of experts in the field—the Smithsonian, U.S. Naval and Military Academies, and Virginia Military Institute, among others. This high-quality video melds historical accuracy with interest-holding creativity.
Other Titles of Interest
The Fun of It: Random Records of My Own Flying and of Women in Aviation.
Amelia Earhart. Chicago: Academy Chicago Publishers, 1992 (fourth printing). 219 pp. Bib. Illus. Photos. $12.00 ($10.80) paper.
Cold War Analytical Structures and the Post Post-War World: A Critique of Deterrence Theory.
Cori Elizabeth Dauber. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1993. 207 pp. Bib. Ind. Notes. $47.95 ($43.15).
Open Skies, Arms Control and Cooperative Security
Michael Krepon and Amy E. Smithson, editors. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992. Gloss. Notes. Tables. $45.00 ($40.50).
The Persian Gulf Crisis: Power in the Post-Cold War World
Robert F. Helms II and Robert H. Dorff, editors. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1993. Bib. Ind. Notes. $45.00 ($40.50).
Red Thunder Tropic Lightning: The World of a Combat Division in Vietnam
Eric M. Bergerud. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1993. 328 pp. Append. Gloss. Maps. Photos. $24.95 ($22.45).
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