- The Engagement Between the Battle Fleets.
MOVE 11B. 6.30 to 6.55 P.M. POSITION 11B
At 6.30 the Colossus and the fifth division opened fire. At 6.31 the Iron Duke opened fire at a range of 12,000 yards; the ships of the third and fourth divisions opened fire about this time. Soon after, say 6.35, the first battle squadron opened also, this giving Jellicoe a total of 27 battleships in action. At 6.33 the speed was increased to 17 knots.
At 6.38 the last ship of the sixth division had changed course to 1 io° true and the deployment had been completed. At 6.40 the King George V, leader of the battle fleet, changed course to 1210 true, without orders, to close the enemy. At 6.50 the King George V changed course to south (1660 true) and at 6.51, upon orders from the commander-in-chief all division leaders changed simultaneously to the same course. By 6.55 all vessels of the battle fleet were on course 1660 true.
As early as 6.40 the St. Vincent had sighted a torpedo which stopped short of the battle line; at 6.45 the Marlborough changed course to avoid one, but at 6.54 she was hit by one under the forward bridge. Although the ship took a list of 70 to starboard, she was still able to keep in formation.
At 6.33 the Invincible was struck by a heavy shell in the “ Q ” turret. It pierced the armor and burst inside; a magazine exploded and the ship broke in half and sank. Only two officers and four men were saved. The Inflexible then took the lead of the battle cruiser line. At 6.38 three torpedoes fired by the German destroyers passed astern of the Tiger and at 6.40 one passed under the Princess Royal. At 6.50 the rear battle cruiser had cleared the leading ship of the battle fleet, speed was reduced to 18 knots and course was changed to 210° true. Admiral Beatty ordered Inflexible and Indomitable to take station in the rear of the battle cruiser line. The second cruiser squadron, with the Duke of Edinburgh and Chester added, and the fourth light cruiser squadron took station on the unengaged beam of King George V.
At about 6.30 the German battle cruisers turned away from the enemy about 90°, and, changing course in succession, headed about south (true). The Lutzow, having been hit by more than 15 heavy shells and one torpedo, left the line at about 6.32. Admiral Hipper boarded a destroyer to shift his flag to another ship. The Captain of the Derfdinger took command of the battle cruisers. Hipper later hoisted his flag on the Moltke.
The German battle fleet followed the battle cruisers on their southerly course, the ships turning in succession. The German destroyer flotilla which had advanced inside the lines fired a number of torpedoes and retired. One of the torpedoes hit the Marlborough. It is probable that a number of German battleships fired torpedoes at this time. Two submarines were reported by the British battle fleet, and these also probably fired torpedoes.
Despite the poor visibility conditions, the smoke of funnels and guns, and the smoke screens laid by the Germans to cover their retirement, the fire of the British battle fleet was effective and many hits were made on the German battle cruisers and the leading German battleships. The leader of the German battle fleet, Konig, received 15 hits from heavy shells during the action and probably many were made at this time. Practically no damage was inflicted on the British battle fleet. To some extent this failure of the Germans was due to the visibility, which was much worse for them than for the British.
- Continuation of the First Fleet Action. Move 12A.
6.55 to 7.15 p. m. Position 12A.
At about 7 p. m. Admiral Jellicoe signalled for the second battle squadron to form column ahead of the Iron Duke and for the first battle squadron to form column astern. The object of thi3 signal was to form the battle fleet into single column again.
At 7 p. m. the Marlborough turned away to avoid three torpedoes, two of which passed ahead and one astern. At 7.03 she reopened fire and at 7.12 fired 14 salvos at a vessel of the Kaiser class.
At 7.05 the course of division leaders was changed to 1990 true to close the enemy, but at 7.07 it was changed back to 1660 true.
At 7.08 a torpedo went astern of the Agincourt and at 7.09 another went ahead of the Revenge. Two ships ahead of the Iron Duke reported a submarine on the port bow.
At 7.10 one or more flotillas of German destroyers, supported by a light cruiser were seen from the Iron Duke bearing 216° true. When at a range of about 10,000 yards a heavy fire was opened on them by the battle fleet. They pushed on gallantly and at 7.15 were probably about 7500 yards distant.
At 7.10 the destroyer flotillas with the battle fleet had reached their assigned positions. Two flotillas were about three miles ahead of the battle fleet and a little on the engaged bow, while one flotilla was astern.
At 7.15 the battle line of the Grant Fleet ran as follows:
- Third light cruiser squadron heading 190° true.
- Battle cruiser fleet on the port quarter of the third light cruiser squadron, steering about 190° true. The squadrons were in the following order;
- Lion, fleet flagship.
- First, battle cruiser squadron…Princess Royal and Tiger.
- Second battle cruiser squadron…New Zealand.
- Third battle cruiser squadron…Inflexible and Indomitable.
- First flotilla slightly forward of the port beam of the Lion.
- Fourth light cruiser squadron on the port quarter of the battle cruiser fleet, steering about 1800 true.
- Fourth and eleventh flotillas slightly abaft the beam of the fourth light cruiser squadron.
- First division on the port quarter of the fourth light cruiser squadron, steering 180° true.
- Second division astern of the fourth light cruiser squadron, steering 1750 true.
- Second cruiser squadron. and first light cruiser squadron on the port beam of the first division trying to gain station ahead of battle fleet.
- Third and fourth divisions on the starboard quarter of the second division, steering about 1660 true.
- Fifth and sixth divisions on the starboard quarter of the fourth division, steering about 1450 true.
- Fifth battle squadron astern of the sixth division, steering 1450 true.
- Twelfth flotilla and second light cruiser squadron on the starboard quarter of the fifth battle squadron.
- Thirteenth flotilla and the Harwich destroyers of the ninth and tenth flotillas on the port quarter of the fifth battle squadron.
The German forces were receiving numerous hits as a result of the effective fire of the battle fleet. By this time it must have been apparent to Admiral Scheer that he could not expect to defeat the Grand Fleet, which had the advantage of the visibility conditions in addition to having a superiority in fighting strength of 8 to 5. Scheer therefore made every effort to break off the action with the British battle fleet. Only two or three battle cruisers remained in formation and these gradually turned away to the right until by 7.15 they were headed to the southwestward. The Lutzow and one or two other battle cruisers had fallen out of formation and were receiving a heavy fire at the rear of the German battle line. The battle fleet in ragged formation followed the battle cruisers, which still remained in formation, and returned the fire of the British battle fleet at ranges of from 9000 to 12,000 yards. Destroyers frequently laid smoke screens and at 7.10 one or more flotillas advanced to attack the British battleships. Admiral Jellicoe details the fire of the battle fleet as follows:
- Iron Duke at 7.15 engaged a battleship at 15,000 yards range.
- Iron Duke at 7.20 trained her guns on a battle cruiser of the Lutzow type, abaft the beam, but before fire could be opened the target ran behind a smoke screen made by destroyers. This ship was probably the crippled Lutzow which had fallen out of formation at that point over half an hour before.
- King George V at 7.17 opened fire on a ship, which was thought to be the leading ship of the battle fleet, at a range of 13,000 yards.
- Orion at 7.01 was firing at a battleship of the Konig class which was observed to be on fire.
- St. Vincent was firing effectively at a battleship until 7.26 at the range of 9500 yards.
- Agincourt at 7.06 opened fire at 11,000 yards on one of four battleships and at least four of her salvos straddled the target.
- Revenge made distinct hits on two ships which were taken to be battle cruisers.
- Colossus between 7.12 and 7.20 was firing at 9000 yards on the Lutsow and made several certain hits, two being on the water-line.
- Marlborough at 7.12 fired 14 salvos at a ship of the Konig class, making so many' hits that she was forced to leave the line.
- Royal Oak at 7.15 opened fire at 14,000 yards at the leader of three battle cruisers. The enemy vessel turned away after being repeatedly hit and the two others were lost in the mist before fire could be shifted to them.
The other vessels of the battle fleet were probably firing with equal effect.
- Retirement of the German Fleet. Move 12B.
7.15 to 7.30 p. m. Position 12B
The flotilla of German destroyers, which at 7.15 was advancing toward the battle fleet, continued ahead. By 7.20 they had reached a range of 6500 yards. After firing a large number of torpedoes at the first battle squadron they gradually turned to the rear, one boat sinking.
By about 7.20 the British battle fleet had been formed in one long column on course 1660 true. By 7.23 Admiral Jellicoe judged that it was time to turn away from the German destroyer flotilla if the torpedoes fired by it were to be avoided. He accordingly changed course 22° to the left, steadying on 1440 true. This time the change of course was made by “ sub-divisions.” The first and third ship of each division changed course simultaneously, the second and fourth ships following them. This made 12 columns of two ships each. The fifth battle squadron of three ships proceeded in one column. At about 7.28 a further change of 220 to the left was made, bringing the course to 1210 true.
At 7.25 the Iron Duke sighted another destroyer flotilla advancing. It bore about 30° forward of the starboard beam, or about 204 0 true, distant about 9000 yards and was headed toward the King George V. Admiral Jellicoe ordered the fourth light cruiser squadron and the 4th and nth flotillas to counter this attack and they moved toward the German destroyers at high speed.
At 7.17 Beatty, having sighted two battle cruisers and two battleships of the Konig class at the head of the German line, opened fire again and increased speed to 22 knots. At 7.20, the range of the enemy being about 15,000 yards, Beatty changed course to about 2130 true to close them. His fire appeared to be very effective.
The German battle cruisers and battle fleet, under cover of their destroyer attacks and smoke screens, continued to turn to the westward. Apparently only two battle cruisers remained in the formation and by 7.30 these had reached a course of about 250° true. The third battle squadron in a most ragged and irregular formation followed them in column. At 7.25 the first battle squadron, and possibly the third also, turned away 9° simultaneously and were lost to view behind a thick smoke screen laid by their destroyers. This was the last seen of the German battle fleet by the British battleships.
XIX. German Destroyer Attacks. Move 13. 7.30 to 8 p. m.
At 7-33 Admiral Jellicoe judged that he was clear of the German torpedoes, as he had opened the range about 175° yards. He therefore formed single column on course 166 true and immediately after column was formed turned eleven more degrees to the right, steadying on 177° true.
At about 7.33 the torpedoes fired by the German destroyers a little after 7.20 began to pass through his line near the rear of the column. The paths of the torpedoes passed through the line as follows:
- Thirty yards ahead of Collingwood. Both Collingwood and Colossus turned away.
- Ten yards astern of Collingwood.
- Close ahead of Marlborough, which turned away.
- Close astern of Marlborough.
- Passed under “ Y ” turret of Marlborough.
- Passed 25 yards to starboard of Revenge after she had changed course to port.
- Passed 30 yards astern of Revenge.
- Passed 30 yards ahead of Hercules which had changed course to port five points.
- Close to stern of Hercules.
- Seventy-five yards ahead of Agincourt.
- Close astern of Agincourt.
- -15. Four torpedoes passed through the line close to Barham.
At least 15 torpedoes had therefore passed through the battle fleet. Jellicoe’s turn away had not, as he hoped, brought the battle fleet out of torpedo range; it had, however, increased the range so much that when the torpedoes reached the line they were practically at the end of their run and therefore running so slowly that they could be avoided by maneuvering the individual ships. This maneuvering of individual ships had the disadvantage of throwing the rear of the line into some confusion; this had no bad effect because the battle fleet had by this time completed their part in the battle.
Meanwhile, the other German destroyer flotilla, which had been sighted by the Iron Duke at 7.25, had continued its advance. The fourth, first and fifth battle squadrons opened a very heavy fire on them. The fourth light cruiser squadron advanced against them; the German destroyers fired four torpedoes at the Calliope, leader of the light cruisers, from a position 750 on the starboard bow, distant about 7000 yards. At 7.25 one torpedo passed five yards ahead of the Calliope, one 10 yards astern and two others fairly close. After the torpedoes had passed, the light cruisers headed directly towards them and two torpedoes passed on either side of the Caroline. At 7.50 the second light cruiser squadron, which was stationed at the end of the line, and a division of the 12th flotilla also attacked the German destroyers which now retired. One boat was sunk at about 7.35 and another, flying a commodore’s pennant, at 7.50. Probably a number of other boats were badly damaged.
At 7.30 the battle cruiser fleet was engaging the leading German battleships on a bearing 290° true. At 7.45 destroyers formed a smoke screen at the head of the line and the third battle squadron turned away into it, probably in succession, and were lost from sight. At 7.45 the battle cruiser fleet changed course to about 2350 true in order to close the enemy.
At about 7.58 the Iron Duke sighted a few German battleships to the westward at a very long range and at 7.59 the course of the battle fleet was changed by divisions to 256° true in order to close them.
XX. The End of the Day Action. Move 14. 8 to 8.30 p. m.
At 8 p. m. the fourth light cruiser squadron and the nth flotilla were advancing toward the German battleships which the Iron Duke had sighted at 7.58. The German battleships opened fire on the light cruisers at a range of 8000 yards. The Calliope was hit by a heavy shell which caused some casualties, but kept on and at about 8.18 fired a torpedo at a range of about 6500 yards at the leading ship. A heavy explosion on a vessel of the Kaiser class was noted by the Calliope.
At about 8 p. m. the first and third light cruiser squadrons commenced to search to the westward in accordance with orders from Admiral Beatty. They ran into the enemy and at 8.20 Beatty changed course toward them in support. At 8.22 two battle cruisers and two battleships were sighted and the battle cruiser fleet opened fire at 10,000 yards. The leading enemy ship, being repeatedly hit by the Lion, turned away 90°. The Princess Royal set on fire a battleship. The New Zealand and Indomitable set fire to the third ship in column and she hauled out of the line. The mist now shut out the enemy from view at about 8.25 and the Lion changed course again to about 211° true. The last ship to see the enemy was the Falmouth, which reported that they had disappeared at 8.38, steering to the westward.
At 8.30 Jellicoe formed the battle 'fleet in single column on course 211° true.
The day action off Jutland Bank had ended.
Let us now see what the losses of the Grand and High Sea fleets were:
Vessels which Sank from Damage Inflicted in Day Action
Vessels Put Out of Action by Damage Inflicted in Day Action
Von der Tann.
Vessels Damaged but which Remained in Action
Note.—Vessels only slightly damaged are not counted.
XXI. The Night Action. Night Move i. 8.30 p. m. to Midnight
At 8.30 the day action had been brought to a close. Admiral Jellicoe states that the situation appeared to him as follows:
We were between the enemy and his bases, whether he shaped a course to return via the Horn Reef, via Heligoland direct, or via the swept channel which he was known to use along the coast of the West Frisian Islands.
I concluded that the enemy was well to the westward of us. It was possible that ships which had fallen out owing to damage, might be to the northward.
The sketch showing the positions at 8.30 places the center of the German battle fleet about 18,000 yards, about 260° true, from the King George V, the leader of the battle fleet and about 21,000 yards, 2550 true, from the Iron Duke. The center of the German battle fleet was about 13,000 yards, 340° true, from the battle cruiser fleet. It is probable that several German vessels were still to the northward of the British battle fleet, having had their speed reduced due to damage.
From 8.30 to 9 p. m. both Beatty and Jellicoe continued on course about 2110 true. The second cruiser squadron was midway between the battle cruiser fleet and the battle fleet. As the light cruisers lost touch with the German ships at about 8.38, it seems probable that the first and third light cruiser squadrons took station near the battle cruiser fleet and that the fourth light squadron took position slightly ahead of the battle fleet. The second light cruiser squadron followed on the starboard quarter of the fifth battle squadron.
As the Falmouth at 8.38 reported the High Sea Fleet as steering to the westward it is probable that this movement was continued until at least 9, as the Germans could have had no desire to change course to the southward, which would bring them into action again.
At 9 p. m. Admiral Jellicoe signalled for the battle fleet to change course by divisions to 1660 true, informing the other forces and actually German light cruisers, including the Hamburg and Elbing. The Germans covered the Castor with an accurate fire. The Castor was hit on the bridge and her radio damaged so that she could not signal during the remainder of the night to the vessels of her flotilla. The Castor and two destroyers, the Magic and Marne, fired between them four torpedoes; a loud explosion was heard. The other destroyers of the flotilla .did not fire as they were not sure that the ships sighted were German.
At 10.20 the second light cruiser squadron, which was in position astern of the fifth battle squadron, sighted one cruiser and four light cruisers, probably of the fourth scouting group. For 15 minutes a very fierce engagement took place. The German fire was very rapid and accurate and the two leading ships,
Southampton and Dublin, received many causalities. Three fires broke out on board the Southampton, This ship fired a torpedo at a group of searchlights, hitting the light cruiser Frauenlob, which quickly sank.
At 11 p. m. the light cruiser Active, which was astern of the second battle squadron, sighted a large ship coming up from astern. Several other large vessels opened fire on this ship and she appeared to sink. As a German observer on the Westfalen reports the sinking of an armored cruiser during the night and as the sinking of such a ship is claimed in the German official account, it is probable that the armored cruiser Black Prince was sunk at this time by the first battle squadron. At about this time both the Active and Colossus ran into submerged objects, possibly submarines. Subsequent examination revealed that both ships had received considerable underwater injuries.
At 11.30 the fourth flotilla, which was probably at this time about five miles north (true) from the fifth battle squadron, sighted a group of German light cruisers, which opened a very heavy fire. Eleven torpedoes were fired by the destroyers. Tipperary, the leader of the flotilla, was sunk by gunfire. Broke torpedoed a light cruiser; then her steering gear was shot away and she rammed the Sparrowhawk, which was badly crippled and had to be destroyed later. The Spitfire fired torpedoes at a cruiser, which seemed to be hit; then she scraped along the side of a light cruiser and carried away 29 feet of plating. On the German side the light cruisers Stettin and Munchen were probably torpedoed. The Elbing, in the attempt to avoid the torpedoes, was rammed by a battleship and had to be sunk. The Rostock was also sunk by the Germans during the night and she may have been torpedoed in this attack.
After completing the attack on the German light cruisers, the destroyers of the fourth flotilla which were still in condition for action continued on to the southeastward. At midnight they came in contact with a column of four ships of the Deutschland class belonging to the second battle squadron. The Ardent, Ambuscade, Garland and Fortune attacked, firing four torpedoes. The Germans opened their usual accurate fire and sank the Fortune. One or more torpedoes hit the Pommern, her magazine exploded and she sank immediately. Possibly other German battleships were hit.
The Marlborough, flagship of the first battle squadron, was not able to maintain the fleet speed of 17 knots, due to the damage caused by the torpedo hit she had received. She had probably dropped several miles astern of the battle fleet by midnight. The 12th flotilla had originally taken position astern of the first battle squadron, but had fallen more than five miles to the rear of the battle fleet, due to the failure of the first battle squadron to make the fleet speed. Another flotilla on the starboard side had forced the 12th flotilla to steer a southeasterly course. By midnight the flotilla was 10 miles northeast of the battle fleet.
No battleships or battle cruisers of the Grand Fleet were in action during the night.
XXII. The Escape of the High Sea Fleet. Night Move 2. Midnight to 3 a. m.
At midnight the fourth flotilla was attacking the second battle squadron. After the sinking of the Pommern the German battleships got clear from the British destroyers. A few boats of the fourth flotilla, however, continued the search. At about 12.30 a. m. Ardent again discovered the German ships and after firing a torpedo was overwhelmed by a very heavy fire and sank with colors flying. Her commanding officer, Lieut. Commander Marsden, and one other man were saved.
At 12.30 a. m. a large German vessel ran into the group of destroyers of the 9th, 10th and 13th flotillas led by the Champion. The Turbulent of the ninth flotilla was rammed and sank, while the Petard of the 13th flotilla was badly damaged by gunfire. The German ship escaped uninjured.
At 1.45 the 12th flotilla, led by Captain Sterling in the Faulknor, sighted a squadron of six battleships of the Konig and Kaiser classes steering southeast. The flotilla increased speed to 25 knots and, gaining a favorable position ahead of the enemy by 2 a. m., attacked at the short range of 3000 yards. Fifteen torpedoes were fired. A violent explosion occurred on the third ship and she disappeared from view.
The Maenad had not been able to take part in this attack, but continued on after the enemy and at 2.25 fired torpedoes at the fourth ship in the column at a range of 4500 yards. A violent explosion occurred on this ship also and she disappeared. Two German ships were surely hit in these attacks, probably the Grosser Kurfurst and Markgraf. Neither of these ships sank, due to the wonderful anti-torpedo arrangements of the German constructors. Apparently there were no losses on the destroyers during this attack, which was a most successful one.
At 2.35 the Moresby of the 13th flotilla sighted four ships of the Deutschland class, belonging to the second battle squadron. One torpedo was fired and an explosion was heard later.
The destroyers had been seen in action during the night by the battle fleet. The Germans fired numerous star shells and frequently turned on searchlights, so that their approximate position must have been known to Admiral Jellicoe. Five torpedo explosions were recorded by a barograph on the Malaya, so that it and the battle cruiser fleet turned to the northward. The visibility was very bad, its limit being three or four miles.
The movements of the High Sea Fleet during the night of 31 May have for long been shrouded in mystery. They can now be traced. The most valuable evidence is afforded by the contacts of the British destroyers with the German cruisers and battleships. It is therefore important to trace with some degree of accuracy the njovements of the British destroyers themselves.
We know that at 10 p. 111. they were stationed five miles in rear of the battle fleet which was steering 1660 true. All the destroyers seemed to have steered more to the eastward than this. At midnight the 12th flotilla, which was in the center of the destroyer line, was 10 miles northeast (310 true) from the first battle squadron, according to the estimate of Admiral Jellicoe. It had been compelled to steer a southeasterly course as it was forced in this direction in order to avoid collision with another flotilla, thus showing that probably the fourth flotilla also was steering to the southeast. It is also reasonable to suppose that the 9th, 10th and 13th flotillas which were originally to the east of the 12th flotilla still continued to be to the east during the night. In a number of cases flotillas steered to the southeast for a considerable time in order to make attacks on German ships which were steering in that direction.
At 5 a. m. the commodore of the flotillas was with the destroyers in position Latitude 550 48' N., Longitude 6° 22' E., or 13 miles to the eastward of the track of the battle fleet on its southerly course during the night. As Commodore Hawkesley was in Castor at the very westernmost end of the destroyer line at 10 p. m. this is a further proof that all destroyer flotillas were carried to the eastward of the battle fleet. For all these reasons I have considered that the flotillas remained in their original order during the night and that at 3 a. m. the center of their lines was 13 miles to the eastward of the track of the battle fleet.
The forces of the Grand Fleet made the following contacts with German cruisers and battleships during the night:
- 10.04, Castor and German light cruisers.
- 10.20, Second light cruiser squadron and the German fourth scouting group.
- 11.00, Active and Black Prince with the German first battle squadron.
- 11.30, Fourth flotilla and German light cruisers.
- 12.00, Fourth flotilla and the German second battle squadron.
- 12.30, Ardent of the fourth flotilla and the German second battle squadron.
- 12.30, Turbulent and Petard with a large German vessel proceeding singly.
- 1.45, Twelfth flotilla and German third battle squadron.
- 2.25, Maenad of the 12th flotilla and German third battle squadron.
- 2.35, Moresby of the 13th flotilla and the German second battle squadron.
You will note that all the German battle squadrons and probably all the scouting groups were sighted during the night.
The High Sea Fleet was seen by the Falmouth at 8.38 p. m. steering to the westward. The German official report states that the German divisions commenced a night cruise in " a southerly direction ” after losing sight of the enemy. This night cruise then began about 9 p. m. Draw a line between the 9 p. m. and 2.30 a. m. positions—the contact of Moresby and Maenad with two German battle squadrons. The distance between these positions is approximately 100 miles, which could be covered in 5^ hours by a speed of 18 knots, the speed which the High Sea Fleet would most probably use. Now lay off on this line at half-hour intervals the approximate positions of the center of the High Sea Fleet, using speed of 18 knots. These positions are indicated on the sketches by small circles. It is reasonable to assume that the German forces would become somewhat scattered during such a night move. They would probably, however, be included in a circle of five miles radius. Circles are therefore drawn with this radius to show the areas covered by the High Sea Fleet at half-hour intervals.
It is interesting to note that all the 10 contacts reported come within circles drawn for the times at which the German forces were sighted. Many of these contacts are at the very center of the circles. I therefore conclude that at 9 p. m. the High Sea Fleet proceeded on course about 1530 true at 18 knots. The battle fleet proceeded by squadrons or divisions. The scouting groups were ahead. At about 3 a. m. the High Sea Fleet passed the British battle fleet at a distance of about 20 miles and steering an opposite course. It passed Horn Reefs Lightship at a distance of about 25 miles. The British submarine 20 miles to the west of Vyl Lightship apparently did not sight the High Sea Fleet, thus confirming this conclusion. It is an interesting fact that the course from the 9 p. m. position of the High Sea Fleet to Heligoland was 1520 true.
The British directional wireless stations established the fact “ that ships of the High Sea Fleet must have passed the Horn Reef on a southerly course shortly after daylight.” Daylight was about 2.30 a. m.
The losses during the night and early morning were :
Sunk Damaged Sunk
Black Prince. Castor. Pommcrn.
Warrior. Southampton. Rostock.
Tipperary. Dublin. Lutzow.
Sparrowhawk. Broke. Elbing.
Fortune. Spitfire. FrauenloV.
Note.—Warrior and Lutsow sank because of injuries received in the day action.
XXIII. Operations on 1 June
On 1 June Admiral Jellicoe made no attempt to renew the action. “ The difficulties experienced in collecting the fleet (particularly the destroyers), due to the above causes, rendered it undesirable for the battle fleet to close the Horn Reef at daylight, as had been my intention when deciding to steer to the southward during the night. It was obviously necessary to concentrate the battle fleet and the destroyers before renewing action.”
The High Sea Fleet arrived in their bases at noon; the Ostfriesland was mined during the return.
At 3.30 a. m. the battle fleet heard gunfire to the westward. At 3.38 a. m. the third light cruiser squadron reported that it was firing at a Zeppelin. At 3.44 a. m. the battle fleet headed 256° true by divisions and at 3.50 sighted the airship. The course was then again changed to 346° true. At 4.10 the battle fleet was formed in line of divisions on that course. At 4.25 the Dublin reported sighting a German light cruiser and two destroyers; these vessels were steaming fast and were soon lost in the mist.
At 5.15 the battle cruiser fleet joined the battle fleet and was directed to search for the enemy vessels reported by the Dublin. The battle fleet searched to the southeastward for a German battle cruiser which was thought to be damaged and well in rear of the High Sea Fleet.
The commodore of the flotillas reported that at 5 a. m. he was in position Latitude 55° 48' N., Longitude 6° 22' E. with destroyers.
At 7.15 a. m. the battle fleet altered course to 346° true and at 8 a. m. the battle cruiser fleet took the same course. During the forenoon the Grand Fleet cruised on various courses over the battlefield and 1.15 p. m. Admiral Jellicoe set the course for the home bases.
At 11 a. m. a torpedo was fired at the Marlborough as she was proceeding under escort of the Fearless. At 2.30 p. m. she was met by the destroyers of the Harwich force and arrived at the Humber at 8 a. m. 2 June, after a rather dangerous voyage.
At 8 a. m. the disabled Warrior was taken in tow by the Engadine, but as the weather became bad, she was abandoned and soon sank.
The disabled destroyers Broke, Acasta and Onslow arrived safely in port.
The Grand Fleet arrived at its bases on 2 June and at 9.45 p. m. that day was reported ready for sea on four hours notice. The conduct of the officers and men of the Grand Fleet had been splendid through the battle and, in the words of their commander- in-chief, “ the glorious traditions of the past were most worthily upheld.”
The losses of the Germans in killed and wounded was 3076, while those of the British were about 6600.
British Ships Damaged but which Remained in Action
Lion..................... Received a great number of hits. One turret out of action.
Tiger.................... Received a considerable number of hits.
Princess Royal...... Received a considerable number of hits. One turret out of action.
New Zealand........ Probably received several hits.
Parham ............... Five hits by heavy shells.
Malaya ................ Eight hits by heavy shells.
Colossus.............. One hit.
Calliope ............... One hit by a heavy shell and other hits.
Dublin ................ Numerous hits by small shells.
Southampton ..... Numerous hits by heavy shells. 89 casualties.
Chester ............... Very badly damaged by gunfire. Rejoined fleet 29 July. 81 casualties.
German Ships Damaged but which Remained in Action
Konig .................. Hit 15 times by heavy shells and badly damaged.
Seydlits .............. Hit by 28 shells and one torpedo. One turret out of action.
DerMinger ........... Hit by numerous shells and badly damaged. Rejoined fleet before 19 August.
Oldenburg .......... Bridge hit by small shell from destroyer.
Schlesien ............ Injured by collision with Schleswig-Holstein
Moltke ................ Three hits by heavy shells.
Von der Tann....... Five hits by heavy shells. One turret out of action.
Light cruisers...... Probably from three to five light cruisers were hit and slightly damaged.
I hope that I have succeeded in placing before you a clear and yet detailed description of the Battle of Jutland. You may now,
I hope with some reasonable degree of accuracy, trace the course of each squadron or division throughout a period of somewhat over 12 hours, from 2.20 p. m. of 31 May to 3 a. m. of 1 June. You are therefore in a position to judge for yourself the tactics of the British and German commanders and to tell which did the better from a tactical point of view.
But while the tactics of the battle are interesting from a technical viewpoint, the most important point is the effect of this battle upon the whole naval campaign and upon the entire war, that is, the strategical effect of the battle. Did the battle have a favorable effect for the Germans or the British, viewed from this broad viewpoint, or did it leave the strategical situation unchanged? You must decide upon this point from a careful consideration of what happened after the Battle of Jutland and until the end of the war, which was closed by such a complete and decisive success for the Allied Nations.