In a 2019 memorandum announcing an interim force structure assessment, Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Michael Gilday and Marine Corps Commandant General David Berger emphasized the importance of Navy–Marine Corps integration: “Naval integration is the cornerstone of our future naval force, and the challenges facing our nation demand that we fully leverage the strengths of both naval services.”1 In his planning guidance, General Berger declares naval integration imperative to enabling sea control and sea denial operations, capabilities critical to maintaining U.S. global forward presence in an increasingly contested maritime domain.2
1. ADM Michael Gilday, USN, and GEN David Berger, USMC, “Integrated Naval Force Structure Assessment,” joint memorandum, 6 September 2019.
2. General David H. Berger, USMC, Commandant’s Planning Guidance (Washington, DC: Headquarters Marine Corps, 16 July 2019), 2.
3. Education for Seapower (Washington, DC: Department of Navy, 19 April 2018), 47.
4. Jan M. Van Tol, “Military Innovation and Carrier Aviation—The Relevant History,” Joint Force Quarterly, no. 16 (August 1997): 77–87.
5. Education for Seapower, 45, 263.
6. “Naval War College Fast Facts,” NWC Public Affairs Office, 7 August 2019.
7. “Marine Corps University Faculty and Staff Directory,” as of October 2019.
8. Education for Seapower, 264.
9. Berger, Commandant’s Planning Guidance, 17.
10. Mie Augier, Sean F. X. Barrett, and Nicholas Dew, “Skills for Seapower: Why the Navy Needs to Teach Soft and Hard Skills,” Center for International Maritime Security, 4 November 2019.
11. Joint Chiefs of Staff, “Officer Professional Military Education Policy,” CJCSI 1800.01E (2015), B-2.