Over the past few decades, the U.S. Navy and Royal Australian Navy (RAN) have exercised and operated together in the Middle East, Indian Ocean, and Pacific, mainly focusing on counterpiracy and maritime interdiction operations. Now it is time to train together for combined high-end warfighting.
The (RAN) closed out 2018 with HMAS Hobart’s (DDG-39) weapons and combat system trials in the United States, proving the functionality of the systems in the first of the RAN’s three air warfare destroyers. Not only has the Hobart certified its weapon and combat systems, but it was the first foreign warship to successfully share Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) data with a U.S. Navy ship.
 Samuel Eliot Morison, History of United States Naval Operations in World War II: Volume 3, The rising sun in the Pacific, 1931–April 1942 (University of Illinois Press, Urbana and Chicago, 1948), 332, 347, and 358.
 Philip M. Ruhlman, War Winning: Paradigms and Visions for High-End Warfare (National Defense University, Institute for National Strategic Studies, 2001), 4.
 Wayne P. Hughes Jr., Fleet Tactics and Coastal Combat (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2000), 90–93.
 Ibid, 90.
 Morison, 332, 347, and 358.
 Mike Carlton, Flagship: The Cruiser HMAS Australia and the Pacific War on Japan (Australia: William Heinemann, 2016), 248, 249.
 John B. Lundstrom, Black Shoe Carrier Admiral: Frank Jack Fletcher at Coral Sea, Midway, and Guadalcanal (Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2006), 100; Carlton, 248-249.
 Carlton, 345; Lundstrom, Black Shoe Carrier Admiral, 88, 99, 100, and 108.
 Lundstrom, Black Shoe Carrier Admiral, 100; Carlton, 248–249.
 George Hermon Gill, Royal Australian Navy, 1942–1945. Australia in the War of 1939–1945, Series 2, Volume II. (Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1968), 49; Lunstrom, The First Team, 185; Lundstrom, Black Shoe Carrier Admiral, 162.
 Gill, 50; Carlton, 287.
 Vice Admiral Tim Barrett, AO, CSC; Major General Kathryn Toohey, AM, CSC; and Air Marshal Leo Davis, AO, CSC, “Keynote Speech from Sea Power Conference 2017, Sydney, 3-5 October 2017,” Australian Defence Force Journal, no 203, 2018, 31-41.