The demand for fish as a protein source is increasing. The global population today is 7.5 billion people, and is expected to be 9.7 billion by 2050, with the largest growth coming in Africa and Asia. Fish consumption has increased from an average of 9.9 kilograms per person in the 1960s to 19.7 kilograms in 2013 with estimates for 2014 and 2015 above 20 kilograms. The ten most productive species are fully fished and demand continues to rise in regions generally with little governance and many disputed boundaries.
1. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA), Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2016. www.fao.org/3/a-i5555e.pdf
2. “Feeds for Aquaculture,” NOAA Fisheries, www.nmfs.noaa.gov/aquaculture/faqs/faq_feeds.html
3. Fisheries of the United States, 2014, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Service, September 2015.
4. Fisheries Economics of the United States, 2014, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Service, May 2016. www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/Assets/economics/publications/FEUS/FEUS-2014/Report-and-chapters/FEUS-2014-FINAL-v5.pdf
5. David J. Agnew, et. al., “Estimating the Worldwide Extent of Illegal Fishing,” 25 February 2009, journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0004570
6. Garrett Hardin, Science, 13 Dec 1968: Vol. 162, Issue 3859, 1243-1248.
7. Kevin M. Bailey, “Billion-Dollar Fish: The Untold Story of Alaska Pollock,” (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2013), 125-128.
8. Michael Fabinyi, Neng Liu, Qingyu Song, Ruyi Li, “Aquatic product consumption patterns and perceptions among the Chinese middle class,” Regional Studies in Marine Science, Volume 7, September 2016, 1-9.
9. Miao W., Mohan C.V., Ellis W., Brian D. (eds.) (2013) Adoption of Aquaculture Assessment Tools for Improving the Planning and Management of Aquaculture in Asia and the Pacific. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand. RAP Publication 2013/11.
10. M.B. New & U.N. Wijkström, “Use of fishmeal and fish oil in aquafeeds: further thoughts on the fishmeal trap,” FAO Fisheries Circular No. 975. Rome. 61 pp. www.fao.org/docrep/005/y3781e/y3781e06.htm#TopOfPage
11. “Chile’s salmon farms losing up to $800 million from algal bloom” Reuters Technology, 09 March 2016, www.reuters.com/article/us-chile-salmon-idUSKCN0WC0A2
12. Lyle J. Morris, “Indonesia-China Tensions in the Natuna Sea: Evidence of Naval Efficacy over Coast Guards,” The Diplomat, 28 June 2016.
13. Lisa Anderson, “Depleted Fish Stocks Spark Canada’s Turbot War With Spain,” Chicago Tribune, March 19, 1995, articles.chicagotribune.com/1995-03-19/news/9503190138_1_estai-northwest-atlantic-fisheries-organization-turbot-war.
14. 1999-CGC Hamilton attempted to seize the Russian fishing trawler Gissar in the Bering Sea for fishing in U.S. waters. The Gissar attempted to return to Russian waters when a boarding team from the Hamilton boarded her. Soon after, up to 19 other Russian trawlers surrounded the two vessels, prohibiting the Hamilton from taking the Gissar to a U.S. port. Hamilton’s boarding crew was removed from the Gissar and she was turned over to the Russian Border Guard vessel Antius. www.uscg.mil/history/Chron/Chronology_Aug.asp
15. The Memorandum of Understanding between the United States and the People’s Republic of China concerning cooperation to combat High Seas Driftnet Fishing was signed in December 1993. Agreement covers provisions for ship rider, joint boarding, inspection, and enforcement. It is successful and foundational to the United States’ enforcement of IUU fishing in the North Pacific.
16. Directly supports U.N. General Assembly Resolution 46/215; this non-binding resolution was passed in 1992 and calls for a moratorium, encouraging countries to ban the use of HSDN fishing on the world’s oceans. HSDNs have been referred to as “curtains of death” killing indiscriminately.
17. In 2012, while on board USCGC Rush (WHEC 723) during North Pacific patrol for high seas drift net vessels, I conducted interviews with six FLEC officers who stated that illegal Chinese fishing had come to an end. The patrol ended with the apprehension of the stateless vessel “Da Cheng” with a crew of PRC nationals on board. However, this was not illegal Chinese fishing as it was not PRC “flagged” according to FLEC. www.nmfs.noaa.gov/ole/newsroom/stories/11/coast_gaurd__chinese_officials_interdict_foreign_vessel_for_illegal_fishing.html
18. China’s distant water fishing industry: Evolving Polices and Implications, Mallory, T. G. Marine Policy 38 (2013) 99-108.
19. Lists of ratifications of, accessions and successions to the Convention and the related Agreements updated 23 June 2016 www.un.org/depts/los/reference_files/chronological_lists_of_ratifications.htm#Agreement for the implementation of the provisions of the Convention of 10 December 1982 relating to the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks.
20. Jane Perlez, “Tribunal Rejects Beijing’s Claims in South China Sea,” New York Times, 12 July 2016.
21. Coast Guard Cutter Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress by Ronald O’Rourke Specialist in Naval Affairs, Congressional Research Service May 27, 2016 ; The Coast Guard’s acquisition program of record (POR) calls for procuring 8 National Security Cutters (NSCs), 25 Offshore Patrol Cutters (OPCs), and 58 Fast Response Cutters (FRCs) as replacements for 90 aging Coast Guard cutters and patrol craft. The Coast Guard’s proposed FY2017 budget requests a total of $467 million in acquisition funding for the NSC, OPC, and FRC programs. www.crs.gov.