For example, at the end of 2014 private corporate data was extracted from Sony Corporation as a result of cyber activity—presumably by North Korea. International cyber experts are closely studying Russia’s use of cyberspace in Eastern Europe. And the media has concentrated their spotlight on China’s cyber activities. Although Chinese leaders systematically denounce media accounts as attacks on the reputation of the Chinese people, in official pronouncements and open literature Chinese leaders have been quite transparent about intentions to conduct military operations in the cyber domain.
In 2003 at the 10th National People’s Congress, leaders announced the establishment of People’s Liberation Army (PLA) information-warfare units. Since the dawn of its revolution in military affairs in the early 1990s, PLA biannual defense white papers have openly included the country’s pursuit of information-warfare capabilities. Today, Chinese writings throughout technical and policy literature affirm that Chinese thinkers pay close attention to trends in the use of cyberspace as a domain of warfare.