The submarine INS Sindhurakshak, pictured here, is the latest Indian Kilo-class submarine to complete a major overhaul and refit in Russia. Modernized at Zvezdochka shipyard under a 2010 contract, the Sindhurakshak is one of ten Kilo-class boats operated by the Indian Navy. All ten are being modernized with new electronics, the capability to launch Klub 3M-54E antiship missiles, and other improvements. The majority of the Indian Kilo class, which entered service between 1986 and 2000, already completed similar modernizations. India has placed a high priority on enhancing its submarine forces and plans to acquire new diesel-powered Scorpène-class boats and nuclear powered submarines under the Arihant-class Advanced Technology Vessel program. INS Chakra, an Akula-class submarine, is operated under lease from Russia through at least 2021.
By Eric Wertheim