The naval campaign of 1898 in the Philippines has only one defect when considered from the professional point of view. The contest was too short and simple to develop many technical novelties or to solve many problems of attack and defense. Yet the immediate results of Admiral Dewey's advance were so numerous and striking that the campaign deserves careful study. Between midnight and noon on May 1 our squadron forced an entrance guarded by a chain of barrier forts and by lines of torpedoes, destroyed a formidable naval squadron, and established a safe and convenient naval base in hostile territory. The same blow destroyed the commercial activity and the political supremacy of the capital of the Archipelago. Before darkness fell on that day's work the Captain-General of the Philippines had acknowledged that Manila lay at the mercy of the American Admiral. Without attempting to show the historical or political significance of these events, certain strategic conditions and tactical methods may be presented for discussion.
Historical and Professional Notes on the Naval Campaign of Manila Bay in 1898
Carlos Gilman Calkins, Lieutenant, U. S. Navy