In the world of naval warfare, the winds of change were well astir by the early 19th century. In 1784, Henry Shrapnel had invented an exploding artillery shell. In 1788, the first small steamship had launched, and by 1816 Robert Fulton was delivering his first steam-powered warship to the U.S. Navy. By 1820, an iron steamer was crossing the English Channel.
But all these noteworthy advances, these glimpses into the naval future, were not mainstream . . . yet. And so it was that in 1827, when the fleets of five nations clashed in a battle that would alter the course of a revolution and upset the fragile post-Napoleonic balance of power in Europe, it would be an epic blowout of the old school.
Douglas Dakin, The Greek Struggle for Independence, 1821–1823 (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1973), 226–30.
William James, The Naval History of Great Britain: From the Declaration of War by France in 1793 to the Ascension of George IV, vol. 6 (London: Macmillan and Co. Ltd., 1902), 358–422.
Charles M’Pherson (identified as “A British Seaman”), Life on Board a Man-of-War, Including a Full Account of the Battle of Navarino (Glasgow, Scotland: Blackie, Fullarton, & Co., 1829), 136–37.
C. M. Woodhouse, The Battle of Navarino (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1965), 17–34, 110–41.