The admiral “had some maddening habits,” one of his staff officers recalled. “He would play golf all the afternoon then return, dine, play a rubber or two of bridge, and come down to his office . . . at 11:30 p.m. and start sending for his staff.”
No way to run a command, most would agree. However, the admiral in question, Max Horton, achieved remarkable results as the Allies’ de facto North Atlantic commander-in-chief. He would spend his long nights in the great plotting room at Western Approaches Command’s headquarters in Liverpool, overseeing the nocturnal battles between convoy escorts and U-boats.
In this issue’s cover story, “Turning Point in the Atlantic,” Commander In Ha, U.S. Navy, explains how in the spring of 1943 Admiral Horton implemented his offensive-minded Battle of the Atlantic doctrine in combination with technological innovations and air power.