Scott C. Truver, who holds the first PhD ever conferred in the field of maritime policy studies, has been the director of national security, defense, naval, and maritime studies at various defense government agencies, contractors, and consulting firms. The author of The Strait of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean, he has been a frequent contributor to U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings since 1977, as well as publications such as International Defense Review, Defense One, and Naval Forces. He has lectured on naval and defense issues in the United States and abroad.