The People's Liberation Army Navy in 2019.
It was a noteworthy year for the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN). In April, it celebrated its 70th Anniversary in Qingdao, and in October, the navy was on display at the 70th Anniversary of the People’s Republic of China in Beijing.
The Russian Navy had an interesting 2019, and while it did not turn out to be the year the service hoped for in terms of major combatant procurement, there certainly were activities and exercises of note, as well as incidents that drew their fair share of negative publicity.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Navy in 2019
Iran’s conventional military strategy is based on deterrence and the ability to retaliate against an attacker. Its unconventional warfare operations and network of militant partners and proxies enable Tehran to safeguard its interests in the region and attain strategic depth from its adversaries.
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force 2019
The Heisei Era ended and the Reiwa Era began in 2019 with the accession of then–Crown Prince Naruhito to the Chrysanthemum Throne. The year also marked a new age in defense capabilities for the Japan Self-Defense Force (JSDF)—and therefore the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF).
Latin American naval developments in 2019
There is a curious geometry to U.S. foreign policy and strategy at the outset of a new decade. Washington relates in different ways with countries to the United States’ north and south than to its east and west, and it wields different implements of statecraft to advance its purposes.
NATO developments in 2019
The NATO alliance celebrated its 70th anniversary in 2019, providing all 29 members an opportunity to look back at the most successful alliance in history. To counter future threats, the alliance has a wide array of tools at its disposal, and among the most powerful of these are maritime forces.
The Indian Ocean Region in 2019
The intertwining of continental and maritime strategies underwritten by the scale and ambition of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) will inevitably require more military presence and influence in and beyond the region. Global and Indian Ocean investment in ports is increasing, and Chinese writers are today far more open about the need for more bases and places across the Indian Ocean.