By Lieutenant Andrew Kramer, U.S. Navy ,graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 2011 with a bachelor of science in aerospace engineering. After completing initial submarine officer training, he reported to the USS Charlotte (SSN-766). He was then selected as a member of the 2017 Olmsted Scholar Class. He holds a master of arts in defense studies from the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Articles by Andrew Kramer

Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps Navy vessels harass the USS Paul Hamilton (DDG-60)—one of a formation of U.S. Navy and Coast Guard ships—in international waters of the Arabian Gulf.

The Navy Needs a Gray-Zone Strategy

By Lieutenant Commanders Andrew Kramer and Martin Schroeder, U.S. Navy
June 2020
U.S. adversaries see the opportunities in gray-zone operations. The Navy needs an effective counterstrategy and gray-water force of its own.