“Today’s security environment merits a different approach. Strategic frameworks must align to the realities of strategic environments. You can’t impose a strategy on a strategic environment; you need to derive strategy from it.”
– Vice Admiral T. J. White, Commander Fleet Cyber Command/U.S. Tenth Fleet, at 2019 Naval Postgraduate School Fall Graduation
There is a false choice in front of the Navy regarding educating its future leaders—does it teach strategy or just science and technology? At the graduate school level, does it choose STEM majors over strategy majors? These “either-or” questions derive largely from a persistent bias that these areas of study are separate matters for the professional mind. Yet, the applied intellectual activity of naval leaders is fundamentally a hybrid of both, so a “both-and” approach is more useful. Invention and innovation in propulsion technologies and systems over the centuries have had an enormous impact on maritime capability and the strategic positioning of naval forces.