A story about lawless pirates intercepting U.S. trade for profit, demanding hundreds of thousands of dollars in ransom might evoke memories of the Barbary Wars of the early 19th century—but could just as easily refer to cyber war in the present. The similarities between the First Barbary War in 1801 and today’s First Cyber War are defined by three common factors: technical competence sufficient to combat aggressors; effective leadership to define the nation’s mission; and government-sanctioned proxies to prosecute the engagement.
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5. U.S. Congress, “John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019,” (Washington D.C.: 2018), 489.
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