The Director of National Intelligence has placed cyber at the top of global threats the United States and its allies face.1 The assessment demonstrates how cyber operations and employment of information technology (IT) by U.S. “adversaries and strategic competitors” are inextricably linked, and how these nations manipulate the proliferation of IT and electromagnetic spectrum ecosystems to their operational advantage.2 The U.S. Navy is charged with engaging these adversaries in cyberspace, both jointly and in the maritime domain, and requires a full-spectrum approach to achieve results. This reality is described well in a recent Center for International Maritime Security article: “Cyberspace and the Electromagnetic Spectrum are material realizations of the information domain, whether midpoint or endpoint, Internet Protocol or radio frequency, defense or attack, this is where you fight, for there is only one network separated in time.”3
1. Daniel R. Coats, Director of National Intelligence, “Statement for the Record: Worldwide Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community,” 29 January 2019.
2. Coats, “Worldwide Threat Assessment,” 5.
3. VADM T.J. White, RDML Danelle Barrett, and LCDR Robert “Jake” Bebber, “The Future of Information Combat Power: Winning the Information War,” Center for International Maritime Security (CIMSEC), 14 March 2019.
4. Tobias Naegele, “Hackers to Pentagon: You’re Doing Cyber Wrong,” Nextgov.com, 19 January 2016.
5. ADM John Richardson, “Design for Maintaining Maritime Superiority, Version 2.0,” December 2018.
6. Gidget Fuentes and Megan Eckstein, “Navy Information Warfare Effort Set to Expand, Evolve,” USNI News, 7 February 2018.
7. U.S. Fleet Forces Command, “Vision and Guidance to Ready Relevant Learning,” August 2017.
8. Chief of Naval Operations, “NAVADMIN 174/17: Revised Navy Enlisted Classification Code Construct,” 13 July 2017.