Regarding cyber warfare, General James Cartwright once stated, “On the offensive side of cyber, every aperture out there is a target.”1 The United States remains one of the most capable nations in the realm of cyber warfare—but almost exclusively at the strategic level. Defensive cyber teams recently have deployed in support of naval and expeditionary units, yet operational Navy and Marine Corps commands continue to have limited capabilities and authorities to execute offensive cyber attacks.2
1. Wyatt Kash, “Hackers Pose Costly Future for Military Jets, Warns Cartwright,” Breaking Government, 16 May 2012.
2. Mark Pomerleau, “Marines Training Expeditionary Cyber Defenders to Join Forces in the Field,” Fifth Domain, 25 October 2017; Travis Howard and Robert Dunford, “Afloat Cybersecurity: Achievable Now!” InfoDomain 1, April–June 2017.
3. Christopher Bartos, “Cyber Weapons Are Not Created Equal,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 142, no. 6 (June 2016).
4. Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Publication 3–12: Cyberspace Operations, 8 June 2018.
5. Department of the Army, Field Manual 3–12: Cyberspace and Electronic Warfare Operations, April 2017.
6. Patrick Marshall, “Developing and Protecting the Internet of Battlefield Things,” GCN, 5 March 2018.
7. Mark Pomerleau, “The Army’s New Tool in Firing Back? Cyber,” Fifth Domain, 12 March 2018.
8. Charlie Kawasaki, “Four Ways to Deliver Tactical Cyber to the Battlefield,” Fifth Domain, 3 April 2018.
9. Scott Applegate, “The Principle of Maneuver in Cyber Operations,” 4th International Conference on Cyber Conflict, Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Tallin, Estonia, 5–8 June 2012.
10. Alexis C. Madrigal, “Drone Swarms Are Going to Be Terrifying and Hard to Stop,” The Atlantic, 7 March 2018.
11. Marcus Weisgerber, “General: Project Maven Is Just the Beginning of the Military’s Use of AI,” Defense One, 28 June 2018.