The defense has the advantage in amphibious operations. Marines will require small, swift, stealthy, and survivable platforms and units to access, persist, fight, and win in littoral environments. Boxer Amphibious Ready Group- U.S. Navy photo
In February 1915, the French and British launched an operation to seize control of the Dardanelles with an amphibious assault on the Turkish coast at Gallipoli. The invasion’s failure demonstrated the immense challenge of amphibious operations in the early 20th century. Both the purely naval and the amphibious operations were poorly coordinated; ship-to-shore movements were conducted with open and unarmored boats; and poor communications made it difficult to coordinate aerial surveillance, fire support, and maneuver. The ad hoc nature of the operation—and the task force itself, composed mainly of whichever forces happened to be available locally—prevented it from overcoming a Turkish defense equipped with modern weaponry.