New and expensive technology such as the F-35, DD(X), and the expeditionary fighting vehicle is not enough to achieve transformation. Like war, transformation must be an "affair of the intellect."
The U.S. armed forces claim they are in the midst of transforming themselves. But are they? The ubiquitous employment of the term and the creation of the Office of Force Transformation (OFT) cannot help but provoke a skeptical response. To transform something denotes a major change in form, nature, or function. In the past armies have indeed been transformed. The Japan Self-Defense Force (JSDF) bears no substantial resemblance to the Imperial Japanese army of the 1930s. One also recognizes the nascent transformation of the English army in the clash between Royalist soldiers under Prince Rupert and General Fairfax's New Model Army.