Many articles and several books have been published since 12 August 2000, when the Russian nuclear submarine Kursk, with her crew of 118 officers, petty officers, men, and industry representatives, perished in the Barents Sea approximately 100 miles from Murmansk. In October 2001, the main part of the boat was raised; a number of Russian admirals and senior officers were punished subsequently for their part in the disaster.
In July 2002, the Russian government finally presented the formal results of its investigation and enabled naval experts and analysts to reconstruct the main causes of the Kursk's catastrophe. In the words of Russian historian Vasily Klyutchevsky, "History is not a schoolmistress. She does not teach. She is a prison matron who punishes for unlearned lessons."
The Oscar II (Project 949A)-class nuclear-powered cruise-missile attack submarine (SSGN) Kursk (K-141) was built at the Soviet Severodvinsk shipyard on the White Sea in 1993-1994 and commissioned in 1995. Since 1986, 12 submarines of this class were built in the Severodvinsk yard and commissioned.