The campaign over Kosovo between March and June of this year was all about the projection of power through and from the air. But it was not all about air forces—a substantial amount of that power projection came from the sea. The major contribution by the U.S. Navy is well chronicled, but a proportional contribution also was made by European navies.
The French carrier Foch and her battle group, including an attack submarine, operated in the Adriatic until 3 June, flying a full range of land-attack sorties with Super Etendards and photo reconnaissance Etendards. Initially deployed to support French ground forces in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Kosovo Verification Mission and in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the Foch was well placed at the start of the campaign to move to offensive operations and sustain them. A Royal Navy Type 23 frigate was integrated into the Foch battle group (including rules of engagement) throughout—a small but significant gain for a European defense capability.