Low-light-level technology, which, detects marine bioluminescence, may expand our battlespace awareness beneath the seas.
The conceptual template for how we will fight in the future, "Joint Vision 2010," is based on the premise of dominant battlespace awareness, to make the battles ace "considerably more transparent."1 Retired Vice Admiral William Owens proposes a "system of systems" as the likely vehicle through which we will attain such transparency, but numerous skeptics doubt that technology will mature enough truly to eliminate the fog and friction of war. There is a great possibility that the maritime battlespace of the 21st century-with JSTARS-type detection capabilities and long-range precision weaponswill resemble the World War I killing fields on the Somme. The safest domain will be beneath the ocean's surface, the dimension in which dominant battlespace knowledge will be the most difficult to achieve.