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JrV'?!ved My Captain Esmond D. Smith,
Ml- S. Navy
journalist, Ronald Kessler knows
‘vessjg research and personal interviews, eial vr attempted to get behind the offi- P0rtra,CrS’On °f this sordid episode and
way, he finds fault with the department, the U. S. Marine
^°scow Station: How the KGB ''etrated the American Embassy
Kessler. New York: Charles >„ nsr s Sons, 1989. 305 pp. Photos.
Gloss. Notes. Ind. $19.95 ($17.95). Re
sells”—high drama and govem- The1 C0Ver~uPs—and how to market it. dg^i^Mlication of this, his latest effort ajc |n® whh espionage and security, was pag ^ doted to coincide with an eight- r^r e*cerPt from his book as the 20 Feb- SeSm 'me ma§azine cover story and a proent °f the “60 Minutes” television Meek *111 tbe same week. Coming on the Spies °* ^*S ^ VS' Stalking Soviet l9jjg America, published in June ple J. Moscow Station provides an exam- Persi 16 msights that an experienced and on event investigative reporter can gain ^ eiJ Ike most sensitive matters. beCauS er s kook is interesting, primarily exp0Se ‘I Provides the first full-length ring ’tl0n °f the Moscow Embassy Mato ecurity Guard (MSG) case available tends6. f>U^i*c' Unfortunately, Kessler Conc] 0 choose the “facts” that fit his not ] Sl0ns’ disregarding those that do donotn.at^'don> his investigative talents deptp, aPPear to be matched by analytical Ponam01Tle °f his conclusions are im- \]o ’ others are flawed. esPionCOVV Station is an expose of the L. <; investigation of the MSG at the tenr-■ Embi
. nravito, v-piawuv.
Al0ng tL ltle way that it really happened
(CIA)> ne Central Intelligence Agency yice (l,?ad fhe Naval Investigative Ser- cant roi • ad °f which played signifi- federa,es in this “spy scandal.” Only the Hom j. °Ureau of Investigation, for »*. Spy ess*er acted as publicist in Spy Poets th rernains unscathed, and one sus- ha] 0(.j at much of Kessler’s source mate- 8'nated from that agency.
The basic outlines of the U. S. Embassy Marine Security Guard story have been widely publicized: in December 1986 Marine Sergeant Clayton Lonetree informed a CIA officer at his post in Vienna that he had been involved with KGB agents since his previous tour of duty at the U. S. Embassy in Moscow. The NIS was immediately notified and, after interviewing Lonetree, NIS investigators found documents in Lonetree’s room at the Marine House in Vienna that corroborated his confession. Along with other evidence, these were used to secure a conviction at his subsequent trial. Subsequent NIS interviews with Lonetree and Marines who had served with him in Moscow made it evident that other embassy Marines were involved in similar activity and that through the assistance of these guards, the Soviets actually may have penetrated secure spaces within the Moscow embassy and possibly other U. S. embassies. Thus began the largest and most widespread NIS espionage investigation in the history of that agency, an investigation that would eventually involve more than 1,200 interviews and 267 polygraph examinations.
The bombshell with which Kessler opens his book is the disclosure that, with the assistance of the Marine guards, the Soviets penetrated the U. S. Embassy communications center in Moscow and installed electronic bugs inside the equipment. He claims that the CIA is purposely surpressing this important fact to cover its embarrassment. The CIA unwittingly aided Kessler’s allegation by issuing an unusual official statement on 14 February 1989 denying that the Soviets had bugged the communications equipment. The CIA usually declines to comment on public allegations, and Kessler likely considered such a denial tantamount to an admission that the bugging had occurred.
After explaining his evidence for these allegations, he turns to the stories of the Marine guards themselves, detailing their personal backgrounds, their training, and the circumstances leading to their espionage-related activities. Here, Kessler does a credible job of describing the major personalities involved in this case: Sergeant Lonetree, Corporal Arnold Bracy, and others, as well as Ambassador Arthur A. Hartman and the State Depart-
assembled during World War II
ment Regional Security Officers responsible for embassy security. He also vividly represents the drab and hostile setting of the U. S. Embassy in Moscow and the seemingly Byzantine structure of the embassy complex itself, with its odd intermingling of Soviet workers and U. S. diplomats.
His description of the complacent attitude of embassy State Department personnel toward security rings true, as does the personal story of Lonetree, his sexual involvement with a Soviet national, and his eventual entrapment into providing classified and other material from the embassy to the KGB.
It is when he analyzes the investigation of the MSG case that Kessler begins to lose credibility. He fails to understand, for example, why in the N1S investigation of Lonetree, Bracy, and other MSGs, prosecution was secondary to accurately assessing and stopping the damage incurred by these penetrations. At the outset of this investigation, the NIS had no way of knowing the scope of the espionage problem that Lonetree’s confession raised. There are 1,400 Marines stationed at 140 diplomatic posts around the world, and after interviewing Lonetree, the paramount question for the NIS was how many other Marines were involved in similar activity in Moscow and at other U. S. embassies and how to stop any Soviet espionage penetrations.
As the General Accounting Office (GAO) assessment of the NIS’s inquiry into the MSG case (published on 18 July 1988) indicates, there is a fundamental difference between a counterintelligence damage assessment and a criminal investigation. The former requires quick action, while the latter must proceed methodically. The urgent need to know the extent to which the Soviets had penetrated our embassies with the help of the Marine guards set the tone for the NIS investigation. It says a lot for Kessler’s analytical approach that he ignored the findings of this independent GAO investigation, which refutes many of the conclusions that Kessler drew from his analysis regarding the professionalism of the NIS investigation.
Three months after the Lonetree case began, as the NIS was interviewing hundreds of other Marine guards to determine the scope of the espionage problem, the CIA advised the NIS that during their earlier interviews with Lonetree (immediately following his confession to the Vienna CIA officer in December 1986), he had identified former Marine Bracy as his best friend in Moscow. It is unclear why the CIA waited to tell the NIS the results of the earlier interview with
Lonetree, but as soon as it received this information, the NIS interviewed Bracy at his new duty station in Twentynine Palms, California. There he eventually admitted in a signed statement that he had not only observed Lonetree with Soviet nationals in the embassy at night but had assisted him by resetting alarms and falsifying alarm records. Immediately after signing this statement, Bracy recanted, denying his earlier confessions about espionage and refusing to be interviewed further without a lawyer. On the advice of his lawyer, he submitted to no further NIS interviews.
Two of Bracy’s former MSG associates initially provided evidence that seemed to corroborate part of Bracy’s story. Both of these individuals subsequently retracted their statements, however, and the NIS was left with the impossible task of preparing a case that would stand up in court based on Bracy’s retracted confession.
As Kessler himself points out, one of the difficulties in prosecuting any espionage case is the lack of hard evidence. In the U. S. justice system, be it military or civil, even a full confession is not enough to warrant prosecution unless it is accompanied by confirming evidence or corroborating statements by other parties. In Bracy’s case, he had been transferred from Moscow eight months before the NIS learned of his possible complicity and he had no incriminating evidence in his possession. The fact that Bracy could not ultimately be prosecuted was evidence enough for Kessler to prove NIS incompetence, even though 71 Marines have been removed from the MSG program and several espionage-related cases are still being examined as a direct result of the NIS investigation.
While Moscow Station is flawed because Kessler interprets certain events to justify his preconceived ideas, some of his targets are indeed valid. The naivete of the State Department concerning security at the U. S. Embassy was almost unbelievable, and the cooperation and coordination among U. S. government agencies responsible for security and counterintelligence was minimal. The U. S. ambassador at an overseas embassy is the chief of mission and, as such, is responsible for overall operations of that mission. Kessler adequately documents the condescending and disdainful attitude of Ambassador Hartman toward embassy security and the function of embassy MSG personnel, which apparently echoed that of the rest of the Foreign Service personnel, both in his embassy and back in Washington.
Kessler and his colleagues in the press
will constantly continue to search f°r someone or some agency to blame to episodes such as the MSG case, but t ‘ real problem is one of attitudes, not jus in the State Department but in the V- • government bureaucracy as a whole. » NIS made some mistakes in the MS case, but while it is easy for Kessler denigrate the efforts of an investiga11^ agency that fails to put spies in jail* real problem is the permissive and meaning environment that led the h rines into espionage in the first place^ Whether, as Kessler contends, the con1 munications systems of the U. S. L, bassy in Moscow were penetrated ” the help of the Marine guards or not, picture of the Moscow embassy °Per‘*' n that he paints should tell us that the K preys on complacency and that this i tude is our biggest weakness in the on spies. Until we begin to take seen ^ and espionage seriously, authors sue Kessler will continue to criticize mately our ability to deal with this threat to our national security.
Reviewed by Lieutenant Commander John J. Donnelly, U. S. Navy
Jan Breemer’s new book is an i*1*^ tant addition to military literature 1° ^ professional and layman alike. “ ni thoroughly documented the develop of the Soviet submarine force frorllcrt.j first experiments with human-p0^,,. submersibles in 1850 through theeS- struction in the current era of the tnY ^ sive Typhoon and Akula classes. jCt also attempted to analyze why the flf Union has built the kinds and num ® ^ submarines it has. His discussion 1 on a number of topical issues, inC arms control, decreasing defense j^, gets, submarine noise quieting, nage, and technology transfer. redevelops a fascinating historical pe ,j tive on the Soviet Union’s long'sta^ir)1jt' commitment to submarines, a csUb' ment that has resulted in the lahrS past 5° marine fleet in the world for the P ^ years, with the exception of the
The book is meticulously
s<>Ur 1116 autbor carefully credits his factCes- He provides intriguing historical laijS' ^or example, the original Akula, dies |°Wn *n 1907, was Russia’s first scree 'Propelled submarine. A twin- WasW boat in the Baltic fleet, the Akula flerslextremely noisy—she had no muf- have0bvious|y. Soviet design teams r'enc SU1Ce Pr°i'ted from their long expe- °pine ar'd intelligence windfall in devel- Powe current Akula-class nuclear*** attack submarines, which rank W0r|dg quietest submarines in the »ieni'let Submarines—Design, Develop- chro Tactics is more than a historical insert^'6' ^broughout lhe text, Breemer tion ^thoughtful analysis and interpreta- subt)1 !tIng the recent decline in Soviet leyejarine construction to the lowest ^9 years and the pending obsoles- rnarjna majority of the Soviets’ sub- ehan„eS’. Breemer forecasts major $oVjgCs ‘n the nature and doctrine of the than h ,Submarine force. With greater rines ,a * tbe roughly 360 Soviet subma- fflateiv °re tban years old and approxi- age> th°ne 9uarler more than 30 years of e ^ov*ets are compelled to move forcea srnaHer but much more capable ’ °ne that is shifting from its traditional defensive posture to offensive and mobile forward operations. To provide an incentive for naval arms control, General Secretary Mikhail S. Gorbachev could easily retire large numbers of obsolete submarines with little detriment to the overall capability of his submarine force.
One appendix of the book is devoted to Soviet submarine accidents. Although much of the open literature on this topic rests on circumstantial evidence or on second- and third-hand reports by Soviet emigres, Breemer draws some interesting conclusions. The apparently high accident rate is attributed to insufficient crew training, poor maintenance practices, and substandard design and construction methods. For example, in 1974 the raising of the sunken Golf II ballistic-missile submarine by the CIA-operated Glomar Explorer revealed widely varying hull thickness, uneven and dangerously pitted welds, and the surprising use of two-by- four wooden beams for internal structural support! Despite the highly publicized accidents, all of which involved older units, Breemer is quick to point out that the new generations of Soviet submarines—larger, faster, and much quieter than their predecessors—are formidable adversaries that will make up the heart of
A Soviet Victor III submarine surfaces. The Soviets could easily retire large numbers of obsolete submarines without damaging the capability of their force.
the Soviet Union’s worldwide naval force well into the 21st century.
Soviet Submarines is an important book for anyone interested in the future of the U. S. submarine force and the underwater threat it must face. With more than 50 photographs and some 40 data tables, it is an excellent reference book with a wealth of useful information. Breemer’s historical perspective clearly supports his hypothesis that the future Soviet submarine force will shift its emphasis from quantity to quality. For those who would mistakenly use Soviet force reductions to justify a smaller U. S. defense budget, this is especially important reading.
Commander Donnelly, a 1975 graduate of the U. S. Naval Academy, has served as division officer and department head on fast attack submarines in the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets and as executive officer of the USS Simon Bolivar (SSBN-641). He is currently assigned to the staff of the Chief of Naval Operations Executive Panel.
Start your summer........................ with
a few good books! -
U. S. Warships of World War 2
By Paul H. Silverstone
This complete and detailed survey covers all of the major ships and most of the support vessels that formed the massive and varied U. S. fleet in World War II. U. S. Navy and Coast Guard ship types ranging from heavy battleships and aircraft carriers to auxiliary craft such as submarine tenders and attack cargo ships are presented in this profusely illustrated reference book. 444 pages/390 photographs/tndex of ship names/ISBN: 773-9/List price: $21.95
USNI Members-Only Price: $17.56
U. S. Warships Since 1945
By Paul H. Silverstone
From the massive U. S. fleet of World War II to the recent build-up of the 600-ship navy, this reference gives the readers a complete chronological listing of U. S. warships built or proposed during the postwar era with abundant illustrations and accurate, easily accessible information at their fingertips. 240 pages/194 photos/index/ISBN: 769-0/List price: $21.95
USNI Members-Only Price: $17.56
From the Classics of Sea Power Series:
The Naval Strategy of the World War
By Wolfgang Wegener. Translated and introduced by Holger H. Herwig
With this third volume in the series, a major German work is available in English for the first time. Long acknowledged as fundamental to understanding German naval strategy as it developed from 1898 to 1945, it is now celebrated for its “Atlantic vision" that led the German navy beyond the confines of a continental mentality. At the time of its original publication in 1929, however, it was censured for the bold challenges it directed at the naval hierarchy. 288 pages/ notes!apps./index/ISBN: 489-6/List price: $25.95 USNI Members-Only Price: $20.76
Aircraft Carriers of the U. S. Navy
By Stefan Terzibaschitsch
This comprehensive reference work covers every attack carrier of the U. S. Navy from the Langley to the Nimitz class. Fully revised, the second edition discusses the significant developments that have occurred since publication of the first edition in 1980. Ships are organized chronologically by design class, and details such as armament, electronics, and camouflage schemes are presented in a systematic fashion. 352 pages/350/photographs/36 line drawings/ apps/USBN: 001-7/List price: $39.95 USNI Members-Only Price: $31.96
The Spitfire that Went to Sea, Second Edition
By David Brown
This is a detailed study of the Seafire, a land-based British Spitfire aircraft modified to operate from the deck of an aircraft carrier. When the Seafire entered the Royal Navy Service in 1942, it was the fastest medium-level flyer afloat, although it was hampered by structural weakness and other flaws due to its hasty conversion to a carrier aircraft. The Seafire's design development, operations, and technical aspects are examined, and many previously unpublished photos are included in this second edition. 288 pages/140 photographs/apps/index/bibliog./ISBN: 989-8/ List price: $24.95
USNI Members-Only Price: $19.96
A History of U. S. Coast Guard Aviation
By Arthur Pearcy
This book covers seven decades of aircraft development, from the early “stick and wire" seaplanes to today's E2C Hawkeyes, and is richly illustrated with 250 photographs, many in color. It is especially timely as the Coast Guard prepares to celebrate its bicentennial anniversary in 1990. 188 pages/200 b & w and 50 color photos/ISBN: 261-3/List price: $24.95
USNI Members-Only Price: $19.96
AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OF THE U.S.NAVY
The Spitfire that went to DAVID BROWN
Naval Institute PreS*
(Please use order fofP11. Books of Interest sectio11'
Ril',enturers Afloat: A Nautical “'bln
|y CSt T°y. Jr- Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow S«q's’2 vols. 1,193 pp. Append. Bib. Ind.
9 50 ($80.55)
5annotated bibliography cites more than al, English-language works that deal with J eur seafaring, model boating, nautical eti-
•'cal 'Vlnc*surfing, the America’s Cup, nau- to v Co°^ery. and a host of other topics related sch ^C*lt‘n§ ar|d boating. Novels, biographies, incl° Works. and children’s books are all etl in this comprehensive listing.
! r',sPace Facts and Figures 88/89
U‘ita Service Center, Aerospace Indus,C" ^ cnlcr- compilers. New York: Aerospace Photo n<T Association of America, 1988. 180 pp. s- Tables. Gloss. Ind. $24.95 paper.
statistical yearbook of the aerospace
lUstrv • . J r
ir i ’ ln lts T6th e(I'ti°n, is compiled his-
rnjsa. an<J current data on aircraft production, forei CS' a'r transportation, space programs, Sfeatd trac*e’ research and development, and a the j f-ea' more- Tables, graphs, and text make donation readily accessible.
! 'IUr Stars
425 p New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1989.
P' Photos. Notes. Bib. $24.95 ($22.45).
in p0^'nt E-biefs of Staff (JCS) and their role bo0|^ ^ar Political history is the focus of this ‘nterv- Ke y'ng upon extensive research and Of ti,e ,^s with all the living former chairmen
frv , , as weH as with scores of other mili- .J and
histQrj Clv'*'an officials. Perry has combined isrr, tQCa research with investigative joumal- tary ie.C.reate this revealing look at U. S. mili- revelat- ersb'P and policy-making. Among the the JC5°ns’s the heretofore unknown story of tesjj, . tleeision (and subsequent reversal) to dir4tj ln August 1967 to protest the civilian in.. )n of the Vietnam War. Prominent au-
uSe p - —our Hersh and Stanley Karnow a b0 as “absolutely riveting” and
feadak-,. combines the rare qualities of D|||ty and credibility.”
hlttp Stream: Encounters With the ,. bod
^V^Uish . New York: Houghton *^-95 ro-,-9- 253 pp. Ulus. Maps. Bib. Ind.
\ Q' 7'95>-
tttatt’j u- Stream has figured significantly in |rade, asSt,0r^ aS a vebit:le to exploration and aad pQ,| 'he driving force circulating nutrients ?S an esUtantS arouncI (he Atlantic basin, and °8ical Sent‘al component of global meteoro- %n,,.Patterns- MacLeish, former editor of magazine, “hitchhiked” his way
Books of Interest
By Lieutenant Commander Thomas J. Cutler, U. S. Navy
around this great oceanic engine for three years, observing its effects on man and man’s effects upon it. The result is this unusual, well- written treatise that is nontechnical but full of information sure to appeal to mariners and anyone interested in environmental matters.
The Nerves of War: Emerging Issues in and References to Command and Control
Roger Beaumont. Washington, DC: AFCEA International Press, 1986. 94 pp. Notes. Bib. $13.95 paper.
As the complexity of systems increases, command and control rivals weapons technology and economics as the primary strategic concern. This incisive monograph, written by an acknowledged authority in the field, provides food for thought on such matters as the human side of command and control, nuclear crisis and war, and Soviet command and control.
Sea Wolf: A Biography of John D. Bulkeley, USN
William B. Brener. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1989. 328 pp. Photos. Ulus. Maps. Append.
Notes. Bib. Ind. $18.95 ($17.05).
Eighty-year-old Admiral Bulkeley’s 59-year career has been more than incredibly long. It has been colorful, heroic, and essential to the Navy. Bulkeley won a Medal of Honor in the early days of World War II, spearheaded the invasion of Normandy with his patrol boats, stood toe to toe with Fidel Castro in Guantanamo, and transformed the Board of Inspection and Survey (which he has headed since 1964) from a “collection of misfits” into one of the most important elements of U. S. Navy readiness. A legend in his own time, Admiral Bulkeley may yet inspire a sequel.
Dale Brown. New York: Donald I. Fine, 1988.
349 pp. Ulus. Maps. $18.95 ($17.05).
The Silver Tower is America’s first permanent space station and a deteriorating Middle East situation makes it the only hope of saving a U. S. carrier group in the Arabian Sea. W. E. B. Griffin, author of the successful “Brotherhood of War” series, calls this novel “fast-paced, riveting, and frightening in its authenticity.”
The Spymaster’s Handbook
Michael Kurland. New York: Facts on File Publications, 1988. 190 pp. Photos. Illus. Gloss. Bib. Ind. $18.95 ($17.05).
You are the newly appointed Spymaster General of Freedonia. In this entertaining and informative book, written by a former intelli
gence officer, you can learn all about the tools of the trade, intelligence organizations, methods of recruitment, and the ethics and morals of the business. Included are the stranger-than- fiction true-life stories of some of the more fascinating spies ranging from ancient Babylon to today.
Strike: U. S. Naval Strike Warfare Center
John Joss. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1989.
144 pp. Photos. Illus. Gloss. $12.95 ($11.65) paper.
In stunning color photography and informative text, the reader sees the U. S. Navy’s Strike Warfare Center. This important combat training facility for attack aviators is the equivalent of the fighter pilots’ Top Gun facility. The book’s realistic warfare scenarios, however, involve electronic warfare, antisubmarine warfare, airborne early warning, and fighter aircraft as well as attack.
Edwyn Gray. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1988. 285 pp. Photos. Append. Ind. $18.95 ($17.05).
Ranging from the first submarine in 1620 to the days of the U-boat in World War II, these stories recount some of the highlights of submarine warfare's fascinating history. Gray, who has a long list of sub-related fiction and nonfiction works to his credit, retells 18 fascinating incidents, including the sinking of 24 Japanese ships by the USS Tang (SS-306) and the Italian one-man-submarine commando who was decorated by the captain of a ship he had sunk.
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SI Torpedo Junction: U-Boat War Off America’s East Coast, 1942
Homer H. Hickam, Jr. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1989. 384 pp. Bib. Ind. $24.95 ($19.96).
it is a little known fact that during World War II more Allied tonnage was lost to German U-boats along the East Coast of the United States than was lost to Japanese submarines in ail of the Pacific. This is the story of the war
with Germany in the tempestuous waters off the North Carolina coast, a region known to mariners as the “graveyard of the Atlantic” and to the men who fought there in World War 11 as "torpedo junction.” This fast-paced, well-written account tells about the six-month battle in poignant detail, focusing upon the men involved as well as the events to bring to life this part of the Battle of the Atlantic.
Dear America: Letters Home From Vietnam
Home Box Office (HBO) Productions. New York: Ambrose Video Publishing, 1988. 90 mins. Color documentary. $19.95.
Based upon the successful book of the same name, this film offers the most moving and honest portrayal of the GI experience in Vietnam. Combining the music of the era with actual film footage and the words of the GIs themselves as excerpted from their letters, the final product powerfully captures both the good and the bad of the Vietnam experience. It is not easy viewing, for it shows us young faces full of vitality and promise that match the names on the black granite wall in Washington. But those who watch it say it is “something everyone should see.”
Other Titles of Interest
Brassey’s Armed Services Careers Yearbook 1987/88
Major General L. A. H. Napier, British Army (Retired), editor. Washington, DC: Brassey’s Defence Publishers, 1986. Photos. Maps. Tables. Figs. Append. Key. Ind. $57.75 ($51.95).
Defense and Foreign Affairs Handbook 1987/88: Political, Economic and Defense Data on Every Country in the World
Washington, DC: The Perth Corporation, 1987. 1,338 pp. Maps. Tables. Figs. Key. Bib.
The Facts on File: World Political Almanac
Chris Cook. New York: Facts on File, 1989. 180 pp. Tables. Gloss. Ind. $40.00 ($36.00).
Foreign Intelligence Organizations
Jeffrey T. Richelson. Cambridge, MA: Bailin' ger Publishing Co., 1988. Tables. Figs. KeyNotes. Ind. $39.95 ($35.95) hardcover. $16.95 ($15.25) paper.
The Military in African Politics
John W. Harbeson, editor. New York: Pra®, ger, 1987. 197 pp. Notes. Bib. Ind. $35 v3 ($32.95). '
North-South Perspectives on Marine Policy
Michael A. Morris, editor. Boulder, C®' Westview Press, 1988. 267 pp. Maps. Table*' Figs. Append. Notes. Ind. $34.00 ($30- paper.
Nuclear Blackmail and Nuclear Balance
Richard K. Betts. Washington, DC: 4h£ Brookings Institution, 1987. 240 pp. Note Ind. $29.95 ($26.95) hardcover, $l°y ($9.85) paper.
Siberia and the Far East: Strategic Dimensions in Multinational Perspective
Rodger Swearingen, editor. Stanford, Hoover Institution Press, 1987, 298 pp- MaP Tables. Notes. Ind. $32.95 ($29.65) har cover, $16.95 ($15.25) paper.
U. S. Navy Aircraft 1921-1941/
U. S. Marine Corps Aircraft 1914—195
William T. Larkins. New York: Orion 1988. 389 pp./203 pp. Photos. Tables. pend. Ind. $27.50 ($24.75).
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