* This article was submitted in March, 1938.
The German capture of the Baltic Islands in 1917 stands out as a splendid example of co-operation of army and navy in a joint operation. Although a far smaller undertaking than the Dardanelles campaign, the former has been carefully studied by students of war who seek to learn how such smooth co-operation may be effected. They have found there a mutual sympathy, an intelligent understanding, a correct command organization and division of duties, and zeal to assist the sister service to the fullest extent. It was not always thus nor did this fitness for joint operations spring into being overnight, but it was the result of three years of leavening in war. Important though it is to recognize the factors which give this expedition distinction, the difficult part is to develop each of these elements to the peak then attained. It is an interesting and worth-while study to follow the mutual relations of the two services and to note the steady development from apathy, neglect, and lack of understanding, to the splendid co-operation finally attained at the capture of the Baltic Islands.