In view of the increasing number of small, scout airplanes and the evident necessity for more accurate aërial navigation, it seems opportune to explain the problems confronting the naval aviator and his efforts to navigate this type successfully. Unless one has had the experience in actual flight overseas, it is difficult to comprehend the real inconveniences of the navigator of the two-seater open-cockpit plane. This state of inconvenience—a condition that impairs efficient navigation in any type of craft—will be difficult to remedy.
The Problems in Navigating Small Airplanes
By Lieutenant J. F. Gillon, U. S. Navy