REVIEW OF BOOKS
"The Engineering Draughtsman." By E. Rowarth. Price, $5.00. (E. P. Button & Co., New York.)
This work, by one of the staff of Battersea Polytechnic, is intended for students already familiar with the elementary principles of Engineering Drawing. It consists mainly of full page plates, nearly 100 in all, from drawings chosen from many branches of engineering. The subjects are all of recent date and there are examples from locomotive, marine, and stationary engine practice and from automobile, airplane and electrical machinery, etc.
Each plate has on its facing page the minimum amount of text required to explain it. Half of the text is the "Bill of Materials," or "Schedule" as they say in England, and half consists of hints as to the operation of the machine. Purposely the student is left to do the real "reading" of the drawing himself, the benefit to him being dependent on his doing so.
To teachers the work will be welcome as a mine of good subjects, carefully chosen and carefully presented. The drawings are clear, fully dimensioned, some in inches and some in millimeters.
The evidences of European engineering practice, and of English nomenclature and methods of drawing will not often trouble the American student. Usually they are easily discounted and the knowledge of how they do things in England is likely to benefit us on this side, though we may not choose to follow the example in most cases.
In adapting some of the drawings to a page of the same size as this Naval Institute Proceedings, views have been moved from their rightful position, but this should not trouble the mature students for whom the book is intended.
One feature of English practice, however, should be kept in mind, or the drawings will be read with difficulty. As a rule "first angle" projection has been used. To us, who habitually use "third angle" projection, most of the views are on the wrong sides of their adjacent views. Our third angle method leads to the common sense rule that the right view is to the right, the top view on top, etc. If a front elevation has been drawn already and we wish to add a view as seen from- the right, we put it to the right, and so on. If we want an oblique view, as seen from the northwest corner of the sheet, we put it to the northwest of the adjacent view from which it is projected. First angle projection leads to the opposite rule. The right view is to the left and the left view to the right.
Roughly speaking, first angle projection is used consistently on the continent of Europe, third angle projection in America, and both in England. I speak of engineering practice. In schools where descriptive geometry is regarded as primarily a branch of mathematics, first angle projection is in use here also.
In the introduction where this author explains his arrangement of views he concedes of the third angle method that "it is more convenient to use in certain cases than is the first method. As an example consider the case of the general arrangement drawing of a locomotive where, in addition to a longitudinal elevation, an end elevation looking on the smoke box and an end elevation looking on the foot plate end may be required. It is obviously easier to read the drawing if the views are arranged by Method No. 2 rather than by Method No. 1, and there are numerous similar examples of a like character which might be named."
Curiously enough, a drawing of a locomotive with the view of the head end (cowcatcher) behind the tender and a rear view of the tender in front of the cowcatcher (first angle method) was the one which caused the writer of this review, trained at school in the first angle method, to discard from his own work, twenty-five years ago, all use of first angle projection for practical engineering drawing.
Descriptive geometry was developed a little over 100 years ago in France. In theory the two methods are of equal value, and the French mathematicians chose first angle projection as the standard method, an unfortunate choice for the practical man. This is clearly a case where the theorist should adapt himself to the practical man and third angle projection should become the standard method in text books. The common sense of the practical man has made third angle projection, notwithstanding all the weight of book authority to the contrary, the standard in American drafting rooms, is overturning English practice and making some impression even in France. I hope to see it universal.
In the case of the present text book, the actual drawing work expected of the student is either the making of some details from assembly drawings, or assembling from details of parts, or designing for a slightly different size of machine. There is no reason why this work should not be altogether third angle work, and the student held rigidly to our standard method.
Students of mechanism who want to become designers, and to convert skeleton or line drawings of mechanisms into actual machine drawings will find much to learn from these plates. I refer particularly to those smaller points of design which do not lend themselves to mathematical calculation, or do not warrant treatment in works on Machine Design.
F. W. J.
"A Treatise on Airscrews." By W. E. Park. (E. P. Dutton & Co.)
This is another volume in the excellent "Directly Useful Technical Series" of books and in accordance with the plan of this series combines as much theory as it is useful to know with a very complete and detailed exposition of like principles and methods to follow in the design and construction of propellers for aircraft. The bulk of the work is essentially practical and arranged to be placed in the hands of the student or designer who desires actually to get out a design for an air propeller.
The particular application of the "blade element" theory developed in this book and the detailed method of construction advocated are, of course, highly controversial in some of their aspects, but for the practical man who must get on with his job it is necessary to accept something on faith. This element of faith is justified by the statement by the author in his introduction that the treatment follows the methods developed by the firm of Lang Propeller, Ltd., an experienced concern.
To the general student of propulsion, the book is of interest as an exposition of the practical application of the blade element theory of the propeller due originally to Drzwiecki. This particular theory, so-called, is still incomplete in many respects but stands to-day as the only useful propeller theory available, and from it aircraft propellers have been and are being designed with very good results.
Compared with such theory of the marine screw propeller as is used in the design of ships' propellers, the marine engineers appear to be in a stone age state of development where elaborate rule of thumb still rules.
J. C. H.
"L'Emden Ses Croisieres et Sa Fin." By Paul Ardoin, Enseigne de Vaisseau de Reserve. (Augustin Challamel, 17 Rue Jacob, Paris.)
The cruise of the Emden has been described in the narrative of Lieutenant Von Mucke, the executive officer of that vessel, who has graphically related the exploits of the raider, as well as his own adventures subsequent to the loss of the Emden. Commander Klein's careful translation has rendered this narrative available to readers of the U. S. Naval Institute Proceedings. Many other articles have been written concerning the exploits of the Emden, but it is doubtful if readers will tire of learning new details, as well as of reviewing the old, concerning the career of the Emden, forming as it does one of the few bright spots in the erratic history of the German Navy in the late war.
This work of a French author presents the history of the Emden from a new angle, even though the book, like its companion volume descriptive of the career of Von Spec's squadron, was written while the author was in a German prison camp, and is consequently derived to a great extent from German sources.
The introduction touches upon the active and efficient services rendered by the Emden in Chinese waters before the declaration of war. A few paragraphs are devoted to describing the character of Von Muller the captain of the Emden, contrasting it with that of Von Spec, somewhat to the disadvantage of the latter, so far as the qualities of energy and determination are concerned. There follow many quotations showing the high opinion and regard held by the crew of the Emden for their captain's tireless energy and ability. Tribute is also paid to Von Mucke, with particular reference to the great ability displayed by the latter in taking an unseaworthy sailing vessel like the Ayesha from the Cocos Islands to Hodeida.
The history of the Emden is then traced from the news of the declaration of war and the first prize, captured just off Tsing-Tao.
Shortly thereafter the Emden was ordered to rendezvous with Von Spee's squadron at the Marianas Islands, but at Von Muller's own suggestion he was given permission to proceed on detached duty, and thereupon began the Emden's three months' highly successful career as a raider.
The German cruiser was rendered easy to identify by the fact that she had three smoke-pipes whereas similar vessels of the British navy had either two or four. Consequently, a dummy smoke-pipe was rigged, which could be hoisted and lowered at will, making the Emden greatly resemble a British cruiser of the Yarmouth class.
The first important prizes were captured in the Bay of Bengal. It was Von Muller's practice to sink his prizes, retaining the crew of each on board the Emden until a certain number of men had been assembled, when he saved one prize from destruction and sent all his prisoners on that vessel to the nearest neutral or enemy port. For all vessels destroyed and for all merchandise taken over he gave receipts. Officers and men who were his prisoners praise highly his courtesy and his considerate treatment.
In order to obtain news of enemy merchantmen and neutral vessels carrying contraband it was his practice to lie off a port and listen in with his radio for messages. He also learned a great deal about the movements of ships from indiscreet remarks of some of the shipmasters who had been captured. He used his radio at times to misdirect his contemplated prizes and bring them within the radius of operation of his own ship.
After his exploits in the Bay of Bengal, Von Muller stood into Madras and shelled the large oil tanks the British owned at that place. Although a few private houses were hit, the bombardment of Madras was sanctioned by international law because the main objective was the destruction of the large fuel oil depot. From Madras Von Muller proceeded to Colombo, Ceylon, where he sank four English ships. At this time no less than sixteen men-of-war, English, French, Russian and Japanese were pursuing the Emden.
The chase was becoming too hot, so, leaving the main shipping routes. Von Muller put in to the British island of Diego Garcia, situated in the Indian Ocean between Mauritius and India. Here there were but two mails a year; consequently the governor did not know that war had been declared. No sooner had the German raider anchored than the governor went out to visit her, bringing many presents of fish, eggs, fruit and other supplies, stating that he was very glad to see a German ship in port since this was the first visit since 1889, when relations had been very pleasant. After leaving Diego Garcia, the Emden captured another English merchantman whose master disclosed the fact that he was following the new routing instructions. Soon afterwards, thanks to this information, the Emden captured and sank six vessels in rapid succession.
All this time the British press, although admitting that Von Muller was acting strictly in accordance with the laws of war, was vigorously attacking the Admiralty because the allied navies had been unable to capture or destroy the Emden.
At the very time that the criticism of the British press happened to be the most severe, the Emden dashed into Penang and torpedoed the Russian cruiser Jemtschoug.
The French gunboat D'Iberville opened fire, but the Emden escaped and sank a French destroyer, the Mousquet.
Von Muller then planned an attack on the radio and cable station at the Cocos Islands. Von Mucke, the executive officer, was sent ashore with a landing force to destroy the radio station. The Australian cruiser Sydney received a despatch giving notification of the arrival of the Emden at the Cocos Islands, but was unable to intercept the raider before Von Mucke had destroyed the radio station and made an unsuccessful attempt against the cables.
When he realized the near approach of the Sydney, Von Muller signaled his executive officer to return, but the latter found it impossible to comply with these orders.
The Sydney was superior to the Emden in speed and gun power. After a gallant fight, Von Muller finally beached his ship on North Keeling Island, and at last surrendered in order to save the surviving members of his crew. In view of the gallantry displayed by the Emden, the surviving German officers were allowed to retain their side arms when they were taken on board the Sydney.
Von Mucke and his landing party, unable to return to their ship, watched the action from the island. At its conclusion Von Mucke and his men embarked in the old three-masted schooner, Ayesha, and decided to attempt their escape in that vessel. Navigational instruments and charts were old. The men were without proper clothing. Food and water were scarce.
However, despite these and other difficulties. Von Mucke and his men made Padang, a port of Sumatra, where they took stores and remained for twenty-four hours. At Padang they found the Choising, a German merchantman which had been detailed to act as a collier for the Emden. After leaving Padang, en route for the Gulf of Aden, the Ayesha, in accordance with a pre-arranged plan, fell in with the Choising, and to this steamer Von Mucke transferred his men. The Choising passed through the straits of Bab-el-Mandeb and finally arrived at Hodeida, and thence, after many adventures, Von Mucke and his men made their way overland to Constantinople.
The book is written in the same easy style as its companion volume describing the career of Von Spec's squadron.
Even though officers are familiar with Commander Klein's translation of Von Mucke's work, a perusal of this volume will be of benefit for reviewing from the standpoint of a French naval officer, the exploits of the Emden, which are well worthy of careful study.
N. R. V.
"The Crisis of the Naval War." By Admiral Jellicoe. Price, $7.50. (George H. Doran Company.)
This interesting book is the complement of his first volume, "The Grand Fleet, 1914-1916." Admiral Jellicoe, the one man who was best situated to know, now draws aside the curtains and reveals to us the efforts made by the Admiralty to overcome the threat made by the German Submarine Campaign. The account not only deals with the origin ashore of the defense and offense against submarines, but follows to sea the measures adopted where their application and results are shown.
The first chapter deals at length with the changes made in the admiralty that the organization might be logical and smooth working to avoid conflict of authority, to have no necessary service neglected, to provide the necessary corps of investigators of new devices, and above all to free the first Sea Lord and his assistants of a mass of detail that their efforts might be concentrated on the larger questions.
The appendices are of value and interesting because they show the organization at different periods and emphasize the fact that the Naval Staff at the end of the war was the result of trial and error, natural growth, and at least one radical change adopted during war.
Chapters II and III deal with the Submarine Campaign in 1917 and the measures adopted to win success. The gradual naval control of all merchant shipping with its attendant difficulties is clearly shown. The tremendous labor involved in putting into operation new measures; the unremitting search for and development of new anti-submarine devices is revealed, and above all the length of time necessary to put into operation any new device, and this when time is the most precious element, is pointed out.
That a campaign against the enemy must be waged with every means at hand; that new weapons must be continually sought; that no "cure-all" by which the enemy may be defeated without fighting can be expected; that during war is the poorest time to provide the material which should be provided during peace, the Admiral shows in a manner not to be gainsaid.
Chapters IV and V deal with the testing, introduction, and gradual growth of the Convoy System. It is shown how the introduction of this system was delayed by lack of vessels to perform escort duty and why when finally adopted it was so successful because it was not only defensive but offensive in that it meant a fight for a submarine to attack a vessel under convoy.
Chapter VI is devoted to the entry of the United States. The accurate estimate of our naval strength by both the enemy and the allies, and our inability upon the declaration of war to lend any great assistance are shown-and this at the most critical period for the Allies-a period when the German submarine campaign was at its height, when the tonnage lost monthly by the Allies was far in excess of what could be replaced-when the destruction of merchant shipping if continued at the then present rate would in a few months mean the defeat of the Allies.
The close cooperation between the British and United States leaders and forces with the resultant benefit to both is explained in detail.
The remaining chapters treat of patrol craft and mine sweeping services; the Dover patrol and Harwich forces; the sequel; production during 1917; the future.
The tremendous labors, "carrying on" under adverse conditions, disappointments and successes of the different forces are given full credit and a just appreciation by their leader. One heaves a sigh of relief when he reads "The Sequel" in which the ultimate success over the enemy submarines is gained as the result of prodigious efforts carried out under the most heart breaking conditions.
No one interested in the naval campaigns of the Great War should fail to read this book, and learn therefrom.
T. L. J.
''Old Naval Days." By de Meissner. Price, $3.00. (Henry Holt & Co.)
In this pleasing account of the life of one of our well-known naval officers, whose services extended from 1825 to 1872, we are introduced anew to most of the naval heroes and many other noted men who had large parts in the up-building of our United States.
The story of Admiral Radford's life is interwoven with delightful sketches of life in St. Louis and Virginias during the early part of the century; the Lewis and Clark expedition; the naval actions during the War of 1812 and against the Barbary Coast; the conquest of California; the Mexican and Civil wars. To read this book is a pleasant way to review much of the history of the United States during its period of growth.
T. L. J.
"Modern Marine Engineering. Part I: 'The Fire Room'" By Harry G. Cisin, Marine and Mechanical Engineer. Price $3.00. (Published by D. Van Nostrand Company, 8 Warren Street, New York.)
As stated in the preface, the purpose of this book is: "To reflect present day practice." While intended primarily as a text-book for schools and colleges, it has been adapted to the needs of the practical man who desires to broaden his knowledge and to advance himself in his profession. The language is clear, readable and simple so that it is practically self-instructing. The subject matter is fully discussed in chapters with a complete set of questions at the end of each chapter.
This volume "I: The Fire Room" contains a detailed discussion of the following subjects, marine boiler construction (fire and water tube), various water-tube boilers, and also sections on boiler-room auxiliaries, boiler corrosion, fuels (coal and oil), and combustion. A detailed description of the construction of a B. and W. boiler is given while only general descriptions of express type boilers are given. For the more advanced student the final chapter discusses the general theory, calculations, and the steam tables.
The book is illustrated by 66 illustrations which are very clear and useful. There are a few inaccuracies where illustrations do not agree with text but it is presumed these will be corrected in the next edition. The construction details shown in these illustrations should be useful to marine engineering draftsmen, as well as to others engaged in marine engineering construction.
The 192 pages of text are fully indexed. Also an index of the illustrations is furnished.
W. L. F.
"The Theory and Practice of Aeroplane Design." By Andrews and Benson. Price, $7.00. (New York: E. P. Button, 1920.)
If the title were less comprehensive and if the preface did not promise so much, one could say that this is a useful reference book to add to the library of an experienced aeronautical engineer. However, its claim to supply a text of both theory and practice falls very short of adequate realization.
The theoretical side is especially weak. In particular the book is almost silent as to the fundamental laws of aerodynamics. The theory of structures given in the chapter on wing strength is rather sketchy and all but ignores the part played by the stagger wires. The stability theory given is largely a reproduction in abstract of matter published before 1917. This last is hardly illuminating, as the practical application of this highly involved mathematics has yet to be made. The authors make no attempt.
On the whole, the book does give a fair idea of how some British airplanes may have been designed in the past. However, it is hoped that in future airplane design will have a more straightforward procedure, and it is to be regretted that the authors have not attempted to digest the vast quantity of experience and data available. The book is in no sense a text suitable for teaching and could be much improved by a 50 per cent condensation of what is given.
There is unfortunately still no text in English fairly comparable with Professor Proll's "Flugtechnik."
J. C H.
"Subject Index to Periodicals, 1917-1919" Issued by the Library Association, 33 Bloomsbury Square, London. List "B-E," historical, political and economic sciences.
This publication is the English "Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature," with the difference that instead of combining references to all the arts and sciences in one alphabetical arrangement and in one volume. as does Wilson's Reader's Guide, the English index is issued in separate "class lists." The list received, by the Institute, List "B-E," historical, political and economic sciences, is that containing references to articles on the military and naval sciences. This method of listing references, while used to some extent on this side of the water, has drawbacks as distinct as its advantages, the chief inconvenience being that the user is frequently uncertain whether or not he has the proper class list in hand, whereas Wilson's method puts it all together in one volume. True, if you are interested mainly in theology, you do not have to pay for thousands of references to music, or archaeology, or fine arts, but who knows in what subject he will become interested tomorrow? For the matter covered, the present subject index is an admirable and accurate guide to what has appeared in the leading English, American and French periodicals, literary as well as technical and professional, during the three year period 1917-1919, and makes accessible to officers of the service a tremendous amount of valuable matter of close professional interest. More than four hundred periodicals carrying articles within the scope of the guide are covered, among them being the U. S. Naval Institute Proceedings, making the guide almost indispensable to one seeking material on any of the subjects covered in its classification. The index is a classified one merely, which is another way of saying that titles of articles and authors' names will not be found elsewhere than under the proper classified heading, although the Association publishes a general name index to the seven different class lists. The bulk and unwieldiness of the list, arising from the use of rather thick paper and large type are amply compensated for by the pleasing typographic effect of the printed page. It is evident that much care and thought has been given to the method of classification which is, in the main, clear and readily understood after a short examination. The compilers deserve encouragement from both arms of the service in the publication of this bibliography which will save time to many an inquiring officer seeking material on recent developments in his profession. The subject list will be kept on file in the office of the Naval Institute and will be available to any officer desiring to make use of it. A considerable number of the periodicals indexed will be found in the Naval Academy Library.
J. M. S.
"A Handbook of Practical Shipbuilding with a Glossary of Terms." By J. D. MacBride. Price, $3.00. (Published by E. H. Van Nostrand Company, New York.)
This is a second edition of a book which was first published in the latter part of 1918. The new edition contains additional information and more comprehensive treatment of some subjects. The author was Superintendent of Hull Construction at the Hog Island Shipyards, and in connection with construction work in hand there, and at other yards, that was being undertaken by a force of men, on the whole, inexperienced in modern steel ship construction, the need was felt for a guide or set of instructions explaining in detail the methods followed in assembling and fastening the various parts of a ship and the tools and appliances used in its construction.
The general organization of a shipyard is first discussed, then a chapter outlining in considerable detail the duties required of the several classes of workmen at the building ways is followed by one describing with numerous illustrations the shipyard tools. Then follow chapters on Keels, Shell Plating, Floors, Framing, and the other major elements of the ship, together with very practical chapters on Stopwaters and Testing; Launching is briefly treated; and separate chapters are devoted to Engine and Boiler Room Installations; Auxiliary Machinery; Piping Systems; Hull Engineering; and Dock Trials, all intended to cover the subjects treated in a general way so that the workmen may have a general knowledge of what is involved in completing the ship.
The book covers the work done at the building ways, work done in actually putting together the various parts of the ship which have been fabricated "elsewhere." It has been prepared as a result of the very extended and varied experience of the writer in practical shipbuilding and while intended primarily for "green" men, contains much information of a practical nature for those with more experience.
W. G. D.
"Simple Rules and Problems in Navigation." By Charles H. Cugle. Price, $5.00. (E. P. Button & Co., New York, N. Y.)
This book is a good one for the instruction and training of merchant navigators who attack the problems of navigation without the benefits of a previous study of mathematics and astronomy. It is devoted to practical examples which may be used as guides. The data furnished can be used to advantage by naval officers studying for promotion particularly as the answers are brought up to the 1921 almanac.
The method of running the morning line up to noon commonly used in the navy, should have been included as it is simpler and better than the method of latitude and longitude, differences illustrated. In this connection it is noted that the author calls a line drawn at right angles to the bearing of a heavenly body, a "line of bearing." The generally accepted name for such a line is a "line of position."
The rules of the road and other similar information which is included enhances the value of the book for men going up for licenses.
A. M. R. A.
"Manpower." By Lincoln C. Andrews, author of "Military Manpower," "Basic Course for Cavalry," etc. (E. P. Button & Co., New York.)
The author, in his foreword, states the purpose of his book to be the adaptation of the ideas and methods so successfully employed in military training and leadership to the uses of civil life.
He states it to be his belief, and his views are undoubtedly correct, that the fundamental principles for handling men are universal m application, that is, we are in all cases dealing with men.
He regards leadership as an art, not an exact science, wherein the leader's impulses are right and these impulses come from a genuine acceptance of principles, from one's own beliefs, feelings and experiences. In other words, for the leader it is a question.
- Of personal understanding and sincerity of purpose to play the game fairly;
- Of having a sympathetic understanding of the human animal and of what the laws of life make him do under certain circumstances; and
- Of having an appreciation of one's own personality and how it affects others.
The book is in three parts:
- Using Human Tools.
- Psychological Elements of Organization.
- The Principles of Leadership.
The author's treatment of his subject is throughout based on quality, not quantity, of manpower—how to handle men to effect that willing response which is the only true discipline. His book will be very helpful to all who have long known that the proper handling of men was necessary for the highest efficiency—and have not yet found any practical ideas as to how to do it.
Part III, in particular, contains numerous items of advice that can with profit be learned and pondered well by all whose duties call upon them to supervise their fellowmen.
E. J. K.
"Little History of the Great War." By H. Vast, Translated from the French by Raymond Weeks, Professor, Columbia University. Price, $2.00. (Published by Henry Holt and Company.)
This book is called a "Little History," and covering, as it does, in about two hundred and fifty pages, a subject of the magnitude and importance as that of world happenings during the period August, 1914 to November, 1918, it is necessarily condensed and treats only of the principal individuals and the most important campaigns and events.
The book first appeared in Paris in November, 1918, and was intended to present a concise statement of events leading up to the conflict, an outline of Germany's long preparation for war, her perfidy, and a popular treatise of the military operations in all theatres. It does not pretend to be a technical or scientific history of the war, but has been written, as the author states, more from information obtained from articles appearing in the public press than from official documents. There are numerous maps that help out the text covering the subjects under discussion, and while some inaccuracies appear, probably due to the sources from which information has been obtained, the data as a whole appears reliable and is presented in a logical sequence.
Naval operations are but very briefly mentioned, the greater portion of the book dealing with the political and military aspects of the war. The subject is one of too great magnitude to be covered in a book of this extent, except in a very brief way, but for preliminary reading to add to one's general knowledge or to help clear up the maze of ideas about the war, and events connected therewith, prior to a more extensive or detailed study thereof, this little book will undoubtedly be found both interesting and instructive.
W. G. D.
"A True Account of the Battle of Jutland." By Captain T. G. Frothingham, U. S. R. Price, $1.00. (Published by Bacon & Brown.)
The heated controversy raging in England over the tactics and results of the Battle of Jutland appears to have divided British opinion into two opposing factions; the one pro, the other contra Jellicoe. This is not surprising when one recalls the gloom which followed upon j\Ir. Balfour's announcement of the losses sustained in that action and his colorless statement of achievement.
When the British public learned that the two fleets had come into actual contact, with the superiority on its own side, it naturally expected a repetition of the days of Nelson, and it was bitterly disappointed, if not shocked, when, later, the negative outcome became known. In consequence, there are now two schools of naval thought in Great Britain. The first strongly condemns the Admiralty of that period for lack of preparation in certain essentials; for a false doctrine of the role the navy ought to play; and for trusting too much to material and too little to men and morale, while not sparing the commander-in-chief because he did not possess or exhibit that traditional spirit of the offence which brought victory to Drake, Hawke and their successors. Although bearing witness to his candor, integrity and character, this school holds him personally responsible for allowing to slip through his fingers the greatest naval triumph of all time. The second school seeks to explain that Jellicoe was right; that he could do no differently, in the light of his information on that eventful May day, in 1916, and of the policy he was directed by the Admiralty to carry into effect.
Under the circumstances, any account of the action by British hands, however competent, cannot escape the implication of prejudice; hence it is to foreigners that we must look for studies devoid of bias. Such are Lieut. Commander Frost's "High Sea Fleet at Jutland," (U. S. Naval Institute Proceedings, Nov., 1920); Commander Gill's "What Happened at Jutland," and Capt. T. G. Frothingham's "A True Account of the Battle of Jutland." The latter is under particular consideration in these lines.
In this connection three questions present themselves at once. "Is the author fair minded and capable?" "Are all available facts employed by him in reaching his conclusion?" "Are there sufficient known facts to warrant his reaching any conclusion at all?" A careful reading of Capt. Frothingham's text supplies an affirmative answer to the first and second queries mentioned. As to the third, it may be safely assumed that, thanks to the British official report and to the books, however ex parte, of Jellicoe, Scheer, von Tirpitz, etc., nothing of vital importance remains to be told of the main course of events. Doubtless many minor occurrences may yet be made public, but none, it is likely, to affect materially the general estimate held by the author.
He describes the military and naval situation just prior to the action, the practices adopted by the rival commanders-in-chief and their respective aims. His story of the battle must be substantially correct, since it is based on unquestioned records and is in agreement with the accounts given by Frost and Gill. It is well worth the reading for it is both terse and clear. Of especial interest to the profession are the sudden changes of course by Scheer, "vessels right about," a difficult and frequently rehearsed movement which baffled Jellicoe at three critical moments of the fight.
The author gives generous space to Jellicoe's utterances, official and personal. His criticisms are few in number and not caustic, although he does not share the general laudation of Beatty's tactics believing that the latter should have kept Jellicoe better informed, especially as to the location and heading of the Germans and that he should have made more use of his fast battleships under Evan-Thomas. The author's most serious charge, based on Jellicoe's expression, is "not alone the lack of modern methods in range finding and director fire control, but in preparation for action under night conditions." Whether these deficiencies could not have been made up by a more resolute determination to close with the enemy at all costs is a question which will never be answered. Again, he uses Jellicoe's own words to point out, tacitly, that the British admiral seemed more intent on avoiding injury to his vessels than to engage the enemy at close quarters, and push the fight to a finish—a reluctance founded largely on dread of torpedoes and mines.
The importance of accurate and timely intelligence is accentuated by the unexplained error of twelve miles in Beatty's position which caused Hood to miss him and greatly embarrassed Jellicoe in his efforts to join his subordinate.
It is no part of these comments to recount the incidents of what might have been a second Trafalgar. Rather, are they meant to call the attention of our readers to a story of the clash of the two greatest armadas in all history, an account which can be accepted as conscientiously exact. Indeed, it will be found exceedingly valuable in providing a general coup d'oeil of the engagement for those who purpose, subsequently, to go deeper into its details.
C. F. G.
"What Happened at Jutland." By Commander C. C. Gill, U. S. Navy. Price $3.00. (George H. Doran & Company.)
"The action was indecisive. Therefore, it had no decisive influence upon the naval situation or the general course of the war."
This the judgment of Commander C. C. Gill, U. S. N., the author of "Naval Power in the War," and well known as a qualified analyst of naval affairs.
Commander Gill has critically examined the tactics employed by the parties of the first and second parts of the Battle of Jutland and finds that, although the engagement ranks with the greatest battles in history, the fact is not generally realized as the action was not decisive. The result is that this contest, which was the only major fleet engagement throughout the entire war, in the opinion of Commander Gill, had no effect on its course.
In his study of the battle, the author has used every reliable source of information including official reports and the books by both commanders-in-chief in which Jellicoe and Scheer fully discussed their maneuvers and described the battle from their respective viewpoints.
With this material, Commander Gill has made an impartial survey, filling in the gaps which must of necessity obtain in the movements of the forces; has graphically analyzed each phase of the contest; and has reached an unbiased conclusion as to results, both in regard to the major tactics employed and in detail as to types engaged.
This interesting work begins with the strategic disposition of the fleets before the battle and discusses the tactics of the battle itself in five phases from the encounter of the advanced forces under Beatty and Hipper through the withdrawal of Jellicoe to the southward that night. The series of 26 diagrams of formations and maneuvers which accompany the text are distinct contributions to the graphic narrative and will be invaluable to students of this momentous contact of giant fleets. Included in an appendix is a summation of the losses and damage to individual vessels on both sides and also excerpts from an authoritative paper prepared by Rear Admiral Taylor, the Chief Constructor of the navy, entitled "Design of Warships as Affected by Jutland."
Commander Gill's conclusions will be given respectful and widespread attention, as many important questions of future naval policy and design will undoubtedly be based on the experience of Jutland.
"What Happened at Jutland" should be read by every line officer of our service.
W. T. C.
"A Treatise on Hand Lettering." By Wilfrid J. Lineham. Price, $7.00. (E. P. Button & Co., New York.)
The author of this work will be remembered by many naval officers as the writer of a work on mechanical engineering which was used as a text book at the Naval Academy for many years, before Barton's Mechanical Processes was written. Prof. Lineham is head of the Engineering Department of the University of London, Goldsmiths' College.
The book is published "for engineers, architects, surveyors and students of mechanical drawing" and is one of a "directly useful technical series" edited by Prof. Lineham, a series intended to "occupy a midway position between theoretical books and severely practical ones."
The plates of lettering number about no of 6" x 10", and there are half a dozen large folders showing the application of lettering to technical drawings. The hand work and the work of reproduction are excellent. I do not see how they could be better. The lettering which is to serve as a model for practice by copying, varies from ¼'' to 1" in height, since large scale lettering is always advisable for the novice.
A third of the plates are what the author calls Block Capitals, either Italic or Vertical, with American Italic or Vertical Smalls. This combination is what we are familiar with in this country under the name of Reinhardt, or one stroke lettering. Officers and engineers in general, if in a position to require examples of fine lettering as models, will find these of use. They have the severity and dignity which suits technical drawing, together with the power of great photographic reduction without loss of legibility.
Another third of the plates is devoted to Roman Italic and Roman Vertical Capitals and Smalls. These will be of value to architects and surveyors.
The remaining third is devoted to types of use only to specialists, such as decorators, poster designers, movie film writers and the like. The examples keep in curb the common tendency to over-ornamentation and over exuberance: It is to be hoped that such letterers may get this book and use it.
While this work may be called a "midway" book in England, in this country there will hardly be a demand for any more theory in this subject. Good taste is the criterion and it is a subject which does not lend itself to theory very well. The value of the plates is all in their good taste and fine workmanship.
T. W. J.