The genesis and development of punishment have been divided into four periods. (1) "Retribution," vengeance, or vindictiveness constituted the sole object of all punishment in the days of the primitive man, the patriarchal system, and the tribe. (2) With the steady advance of civilization "Repression" of offenses became the primary consideration of punitive measures. This was attempted by intimidation and torture, the methods of which are so conspicuously recorded upon the pages of history. (3) The deep thinking of the Beccario and the indefatigable labors of John Howard gave a decided impetus to the third epoch, which has been termed "Reformative" period. During this time it was recognized that reformation of delinquents was not only beneficial to the individual, but indirectly aided in the prevention of offenses. (4) We are now on the threshold of the new epoch. Profound students of sociology and practical laborers in our great penal institutions are realizing the importance of prophylaxis or prevention of offenses over therapeutics or treatment of offenders.
An Attempted Classification of the Personnel of the U. S. Naval Disciplinary Barracks, Port Royal, S. C.
By W. L. Mann, Ph. B., A. M., M. D., Passed Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Navy.