*The second section of Operations, dealing with the conquest of overseas territory, is here omitted, a translation of it by Commander H. S. Knapp, U. S. N., having already been published in the PROCEEDINGS (see No. 127).
Too much has been written in recent years upon commerce destroying for it to be necessary to explain here what it is and what its avowed object is.
The English were the first to try this system of warfare which France afterwards used so frequently against them. Charles I, always short of money, found, as many people of our own time have, that squadrons are very costly; and, since Holland was an exclusively commercial nation, since she drew her wealth wholly from her sea trade, he thought there was no need to maintain those imposing fleets whose armament was a ruinous expense; it sufficed to launch frigates and light vessels in pursuit of the Dutch merchantmen, and thus to secure the double advantage of drying up the source of the enemy's wealth and at the same time growing rich upon their spoils.