(Translated from the Russian by Lieutenant John B. Bernadou, U.S. N.)
The "combustion" of a powder is the union of the carbon and hydrogen of the mixture or compound with the oxygen that it contains, and with which it is in association, but not in direct combination. From what has been said already, it is evident that if the powder is to be smokeless and produce the maximum volume of gas, V1000, it must evolve no other gases than carbonic oxide, CO, water vapor, H2O, and nitrogen, N2. If hydrogen be evolved, without the formation of the corresponding quantity (equal volume) of carbonic acid, free carbon may result; i. e., the powder will not be wholly smokeless on account of insufficiency of oxygen. If the combustion, as indicated by the equation, reveals carbonic acid or free oxygen (without the corresponding volume of hydrogen), an excess of oxygen is evident, and V1000 will not possess its maximum value.