In 1868, the Meiji Restoration in Japan began a fundamental shift in the country’s conception of its place in the world.1 This shift was catalyzed by the “gunboat diplomacy” of Commodore Matthew C. Perry, who demonstrated the power of the U.S. Navy to secure expanded trading rights between the United States and Japan.2 The Meiji Restoration was characterized by an effort to modernize and globalize Japan economically and militarily in order to ensure the country would not be subjugated by a foreign power.3 Shimazu Nariakira, a powerful feudal lord during the period, stated that “if we take the initiative, we can dominate; if we do not, we will be dominated.”4
1. William E. Griffis, The Mikado’s Empire: A History of Japan from the Age of Gods to the Meiji Era (660BC–AD1872) (Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press, 2006), 342.
2. Henry Kissinger, World Order (New York: Penguin Press, 2014), 184.
3. Akira Iriye, Power and Culture: The Japanese-American War, 1941–1945 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 5.
4. Robert K. Sakai, "Shimazu Nariakira and the Emergence of National Leadership in Satsuma," in Personality in Japanese History, ed. Albert M. Craig and Donald H. Shively (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1970), 209.
5. Allan R. Millet, “Assault from the Sea: The Development of Amphibious Warfare Between the Wars,” in Military Innovation in the Interwar Period, ed. Williamson Murray and Allan R. Millet (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 55.
6. Edward J. Drea, In the Service of the Emperor: Essays on the IJA (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003), 21.
7. Lisle A. Rose, Power At Sea: The Breaking Storm, 1919–1945 (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2007), 17.
8. Rose, Power At Sea, 17.
9. Robert Dingman, Power in the Pacific: The Origins of Naval Arms Limitation, 1914–1922 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), 217.
10. Millet, “Assault from the Sea,” 81.
11. Millet, 65.
12. Millet, 65.
13. Drea, In the Service of the Emperor, 14.
14. Hans Von Lehmann, “Japanese Landing Operations in World War Two,” trans. Professor Michael C. Halbig, in Assault from the Sea: Essays on the History of Amphibious Warfare, ed. Lieutenant Colonel Merril L. Bartlett, USMC (Retired) (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1983), 197.
15. Lehmann, "Japanese Landing Operations," 198.
16. Rose, Power At Sea, 140.
17. Millet, “Assault from the Sea,” 67.
18. Rose, Power At Sea, 141.
19. Drea, In the Service of the Emperor, 22.
20. Drea, 23.
21. Rose, Power At Sea, 142.