The Royal Navy led the development of aerial torpedo attacks. The first recorded torpedoing of a ship by an aircraft in combat occurred on 12 August 1915, when a British Short 184 floatplane torpedoed a Turkish supply ship in the Gulf of Xeros, near the Dardanelles.
Or did it? At about the same moment, the British submarine E-14 claimed to have torpedoed the same Turkish ship.
1. These attacks are detailed in N. Polmar, Aircraft Carriers: A History of Carrier Aviation and Its Influence on World Events, vol. I, 1909–1945 (Washington, DC: Potomac Books, 2006), 16–19.
2. The aircraft descriptions are derived from Peter M. Bowers, Curtiss Aircraft, 1907–1947 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1979), 189–91; and Gordon Swanborough and Peter M. Bowers, United States Navy Aircraft since 1911 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1968), 139–40.
3. Additional design changes by Martin led to the T4M and TG torpedo aircraft.