Marine aviation units continued to enforce other U.N. resolutions, including enforcement of the no-fly zones in the northern and southern regions of Iraq. Marine AV-8B Harriers from the 15th MEU(SOC) flying from the USS Essex (LHD-2) supported Operation Southern Watch, conducting air interdiction and armed reconnaissance missions in the no-fly zone over southern Iraq from September to October. As part of the no-fly zone enforcement effort, other Marine squadrons provided both aerial refueling and electronic-warfare mission support to the joint task force conducting Operation Northern Watch, starting in April.
Operation Noble Response, conducted by Joint Task Force Kenya under Marine Brigadier General William A. Whitlow, U.S. Marine Corps from 26 February to 3 April 1998, generated SI sorties to deliver more than 800 tons of food and supplies to Kenya, where rains and floods had devastated villages and the limited infrastructure. This small task force, comprised of elements of all four Services, included a headquarters element from I Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Pendleton, California, and KC-130 crews from Marine Corps Air Station El Toro, California. "Not only did members of the task force take satisfaction in saving lives and providing humanitarian relief, they also benefited from the experiences in a real-world environment," General Whitlow said. The effort manifested U.S. support to the people and government of Kenya when they needed it most, and demonstrated Marine capabilities in the current age of complex contingencies requiring close interaction with nongovernmental relief agencies and international groups.
Although it might be considered a training exercise, Dynamic Response was a classic post-Cold War use of military units that did not involve the use of force. From late March to 6 April, the 26th MEU (SOC) commanded by Colonel Emerson Gardner. Jr., served as part of NATO's Strategic Reserve Force off Bosnia. The force is a multinational unit designed to augment or reinforce the Peace Stabilization Force in Bosnia. During Dynamic Response, the MEU offloaded its Ground Combat Element—3d Battalion, 2nd Marines—in Ploce, Croatia, and conducted a 100-mile road march and heliborne lift to Sarajevo, Mostar, and Vrapcici, Bosnia. With allied nations, the unit conducted security operations during the exercise, and conducted a live-fire demonstration hosted by the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR), General Wesley K. Clark, U.S. Army. Before departing, a Medical and Dental Civil Assistance project provided medical check ups on 120 children.
This same expeditionary unit, part of the USS Wasp (LHD-1) Amphibious Ready Group, in June participated in Operation Determined Falcon off the Albanian coast, conducted to demonstrate international support against Serbian aggression in Kosovo.
Marine Corps Reserves continued to demonstrate their high state of readiness and their overall value to the Total Force by taking part in a rapid overseas deployment supporting President Bill Clinton's trip to Africa in March. The operation was supported by Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron (HMH)-769, a Reserve squadron based at El Toro. As part of Operation Eagle Vista, a detachment of three CH-53Es and 71 Marines, including personnel from Marine Helicopter Training Squadron (HMT)-302, were flown to South Africa to provide transportation and direct support to the President's visit to Capetown, South Africa.
Marines continued to support NATO and the Dayton Peace Accords throughout the year. Unmanned aerial vehicle support from VMU-2 and civil-affairs specialists from the 4th Civil Affairs Group operated as part of Operation Joint Forge in Bosnia throughout the year.
EA-6B Prowlers, the Corps' electronic warfare aircraft, continued to participate in Operation Deliberate Force, flying out of Aviano Air Base in Italy. This ongoing commitment was marred by tragedy on 3 February 1998 when a Marine Electronic Warfare Squadron (VMAQ)-2 Prowler on a training mission sliced through a cable supporting a gondola and sent 20 civilians to their deaths. In July 1998, the Commanding General, Marine Forces Atlantic, Lieutenant General Peter Pace, referred both the pilot and the navigator to trial by court-martial. Captain Richard Ashby, the pilot, was acquitted on 4 March 1999, and the Marine Corps subsequently dropped some charges against the navigator. Other charges are pending.
In June, the 11th MEU, forward-deployed with the USS Tarawa (LHA-1) Amphibious Ready Group, successfully executed Operation Safe Departure, a non-combatant evacuation in Eritrea. The California-based unit, commanded by Colonel Thomas L. Moore, dispatched a unit of 30 Marines on board a pair of KC130 aircraft from Jordan to Eritrea. Reacting to a potentially violent border dispute between Eritrea and Ethiopia, the U.S. directed this operation to evacuate 172 American citizens and third-country nationals.
Marines from II Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) Camp Lejeune, augmented security elements in the Panama Canal Zone during the year with various infantry, light armor, and small-craft elements. The 23d Marine Regiment, 4th Marine Division, dispatched a reserve composite unit, Company D (reinforced), again demonstrating peacetime contingency in support of a Commander-in-Chief s engagement plan. Such deployments provide clear testimony to the integration of the active and reserve community. In this same theater, UNITAS 39-98, based on forces from II MEF, conducted its annual engagement schedule with various Central and South American countries during the July-November time period.
Joint Task Force (JTF) Full Provider, commanded by Brigadier General Paul M. Lee, Jr., the Commanding General of the 2d Force Service Support Group, Camp Lejeune, was established in the wake of Hurricane Georges to provide humanitarian assistance to stricken Puerto Rico. Operation Fundamental Relief was a classic disaster-relief operation. Deploying in early October on board the USS Bataan (LHD-5), the JTF included nearly 1,000 Marines from Camp Lejeune and MCAS New River, including a rifle company, a composite helicopter squadron, and Combat Service Support Detachment 16. This Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force, commanded by Colonel Walter V. Whittled, U.S. Marine Corps, generated engineering, bridging, and water purification services to the relief effort. The advance party deployed on less than 12 hours' notice, and the task force was providing needed supplies and services within 24 hours of its initial deployment order. With the arrival of Military Sealift and U.S. Navy amphibious shipping in early October, the task force was in full swing and up to its maximum strength of more than 2,000 service members. "It shows the military is for more than just fighting wars. We're out here helping people." said Sergeant Brian Keagy, a Kansas Marine. Other 2d Force Service Support Group (FSSG) units provided humanitarian relief and post-disaster assistance in the Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua as part of Operation Strong Support, in the aftermath of Hurricane Mitch.
On 7 August, terrorists struck two U.S. embassies in Africa nearly simultaneously. A massive bomb detonated near the U.S. embassy in Nairobi, Kenya, killing 247 people including 12 Americans. One of the fatalities was a Marine security guard, Sergeant Jesse N. Aliganga, of Tallahassee. Florida. Another bomb struck at the U.S. embassy in Dares-Salaam, Tanzania, killing 9 people. Within hours of the bombing, two Fleet Anti-terrorist Security Team platoons from the Norfolk-based Marine Security Force Battalion were dispatched to Africa to provide additional security.
The Marines on the scene responded in the best tradition. Sergeant Daniel Briehl, from Sheffield, Ohio, was later decorated with the Navy and Marine Corps Medal, the naval service's highest peacetime award for bravery, as well as a Purple Heart, for repeatedly rushing back into the rubble of the bombed embassy to extract others, despite having suffered broken ribs in the explosion. He had been ordered to a hospital, but chose to remain. "I don't think it's anything different than any other Marine would do. You tell yourself `this isn't happening.' But there's another side of you that takes charge and makes you do what you are supposed to do," he said.
Saddam Hussein remained responsible for major increases in operational tempo and deployments to the Gulf. Marine F/A-18s flying from the USS Enterprise (CVN-65) got their licks in early as part of the U.S.-British strikes against Iraq in Operation Desert Fox in mid-December 1998. Marine Fighter Attack Squadron (VMFA)-312 conducted offensive air missions against military targets in that country early on 17 December 1998. The Checkerboards, led by Lieutenant Colonel Steve Pomeroy, were credited with completing 100% of assigned missions and complete coverage of assigned targets. [See "Desert Fox: The Third Night," Proceedings April 1999, pages 36-40.] At the same time, the 31st MEU was deployed inside Kuwait, with its aviation element standing ready on alert on board the USS Belleau Wood (LHA-3).
Pilots were not the only Marines to see action during this tense period. Marine security personnel stationed at the U.S. embassy in Syria were forced to restore order at that embassy in Damascus after crowds rushed the compound and actually entered the Ambassador's residence and threatened his wife. Using tear gas, the Marines dispersed the angry mob on 19 December during anti-American violence that erupted after Desert Fox.
In support of a National Security Strategy that places new-found priority on preparing as well as shaping, Marines participated in more than 55 exercises hosted by more than 25 different countries in 1998. These exercises involved more than 50,000 Marines, and resulted in renewed or wholly new relationships with foreign forces and future leaders in key areas.
The regularly scheduled six-month deployment of the 22d MEU (SOC), commanded by Colonel Sam T. Helland, U.S. Marine Corps, provides a snapshot of the contributions made by forward deployed naval expeditionary forces to all three elements of the national strategy. Early during its cruise. elements from the MEU on the USS Austin (LPD-4), participated in Exercise Cooperative Assembly in Albania along with ten NATO allies. In Exercise Cooperative Best Effort '98, the 22d MEU(SOC)—along with the USS Saipan (LHA-2) ARG, honed their skills in Macedonia, while generating professional bonds with potential allies. At the same time, these forces gained a real appreciation for the skills and potent capabilities of U.S. forces.
After completing Cooperative Best Effort, the expeditionary unit went on to North Africa to conduct cross-training with the Tunisian military in Exercise Atlas Hinge 98, and then worked with NATO allies in Exercise Dynamic Mix in Sardinia, Italy. This exercise included a major live-fire shoot, and an in-stream Maritime Prepositioning Force offload. While the Saipan sailed to the Adriatic, a portion of the ARG continued to conduct amphibious exercises in Spanish Phiblex 98 and Sardinia 98. In October, the Austin sailed to the Black Sea to participate in humanitarian-assistance exercises with Ukraine and Romania. In Sea Breeze 98, a detachment from the MEU worked with troops from Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Turkey, England, Italy, and Greece. Rescue Eagle was another disaster relief scenario, this time with Romanian naval infantrymen.
The 31st MEU (SOC), commanded by Colonel David Fulton, had a busy year ranging from operations in the Gulf to exercises throughout Asia. With Battalion Landing Team 3/5, led by Lieutenant Colonel Kevin P. O'Keefe, 31st MEU participated in Exercise Cobra Gold 98 along with more than 10,000 U.S. service members and almost 7,000 Thai troops. The exercise began 19 May and included an amphibious raid, a combined arms live-fire exercise, and a Civic Action Team project that rebuilt several schools and provided medical and dental assistance. "Cobra Gold once again put the strength of the U.S and Thai spirit of cooperation and friendship before the eyes of national, regional, and international publics," noted Lieutenant General Frank Libutti, Commanding General, III MEF.
Emerald Express 98 was a six-day symposium jointly sponsored by U.S. Central Command, Pacific Command, and Headquarters Marine Corps. Hosted once again by I Marine Expeditionary Force, this event focused on drawing lessons from the complex contingencies of the 1990s to prepare for what General Charles Krulak, Marine Corps Commandant, calls the "three-block wars" of the next millennium. Conducted at Camp Pendleton, from 5 through 10 April 1998, Emerald Express provided a forum for about 80 speakers and nearly 300 attendees from some two dozen nations, to help both the Marine Corps and international community document lessons and improve humanitarian assistance-disaster relief (HA/DR) operations. A number of senior U.S. government officials and leaders from U.N. and international relief agencies were present. Emerald Express has proved to be a worthwhile exchange it has preserved the Marine Corps' internationally recognized competence and commitment to the HA/DR challenge and expanded international training and awareness of the requirements for complex contingencies. "The three most important things in humanitarian-assistance or disaster-relief missions are communications, cooperation, and coordination,' observed retired Marine Lieutenant General Hank C. Stackpole, now director of the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies in Hawaii, and a veteran of Operation Sea Angel in Bangladesh in 1991. Emerald Express keeps the communications, cooperation, and coordination flowing.
Baltic Challenge 98, the largest exercise held in Lithuania and the Baltic States and the major exercise in Europe in 1998. Marines from Fleet Marine Force Europe, 2d Medical Battalion, 2d FSSG, and a Reserve rifle company from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, participated in this international peacekeeping and security operations training event with more than 5,000 other military members from a dozen nations. Executed in a series of phases from 1 May to 25 July, the exercise included a number of community support projects including repairs for several schools, medical clinics, and an orphanage. In June, phase II included the employment of maritime prepositioning assets to support contingency tasks. The culminating phase in July focused on training for multinational peacekeeping operations.
On the other side of the Eurasian land mass, Exercise Cooperation from the Sea evidenced a different side of the post-Cold War environment. Teamed with their former adversaries from the Cold War, Marines and Sailors from 31st MEU(SOC) and the USS Germantown (LSD-42) combined forces with Russian naval forces to conduct small unit training and a HA/DR training operation near Vladivostok. A port visit, coupled with several small but well received civic assistance projects to help rehabilitate a hospital and work at a local orphanage demonstrated the growing rapport and understanding between these old antagonists. "Characterized by the willingness of two powerful nations to work together and assist others in times of need, it broadens horizons and redefines past realities," Brigadier General Jerry D. Humble, Commanding General, 3d Marine Division, said.
Experimentation and Innovation
Throughout 1998, the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory (MCWL) continued to burnish its international reputation for forward thinking and activism. The focus of this year's effort was on future requirement for military operations in urban terrain (MOUT), since demographics and threat assessment indicate an increasing likelihood of urban combat in the next century. The combination of large populations, large expectations, ethnic unrest, limited employment opportunities, and competition for resources could pose instability in Third World megacities. In the words of retired U.S. Army intelligence officer Lieutenant Colonel Ralph Peters, they will be the concrete jungles of the 21st century; the Lab focused on these concrete jungles in 1998. During the week of 26-30 April the Lab and its operational arm, the Special Purpose MAGTF Experimental (SPMAGTFX), conducted the second limited-objective experiment in its Urban Warrior series at the Camp Lejeune facility. The SPMAGTFX included the headquarters element from Quantico, and the 1st Battalion, 8th Marines, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Colby Smith.
The experiment was designed to deal with small unit combined-arms missions, with a focus on small unit leader decision making and new tactical approaches to penetrate urban areas via air, surface, and subsurface avenues of approach. During the experiment, the Lab employed unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and various sensors to increase the amount of real-time information provided to unit leaders. Other aspects of this phase of Urban Warrior explored advances in medical support. Subsequent activities included a visit by 80 Marines to Chicago in May, where the challenges of operations in large urban complexes were examined in conjunction with local government agencies.
During the summer, the Lab underwent a major leadership change when its founding director, Colonel Anthony A. Wood relinquished command to Brigadier General Timothy E. Donovan in a change of command ceremony at Quantico. Colonel Wood had been the guiding force behind the Lab since it was conceived by General Krulak in 1995. Just weeks earlier, Colonel Thomas M. O'Leary turned over the SPMAGTFX to Colonel R. E. Schmidle, Jr.
In September, the Lab conducted the culminating phase experiment for Urban Warrior at Camp Lejeune, and at the Citadel in Charleston, South Carolina. These evolutions offered another venue to examine tactics, techniques, and procedures for MOUT and over-the-horizon command-and-control capabilities. Once again, 1st Battalion, 8th Marines participated, augmented with British and Dutch Marines. The scenario was violent and ambiguous, and intermixed civilians, opposing forces, and the media. The Lab explored training techniques, designing a widely touted Squad Leaders Course, as well as projects that involved small sensors, nonlethal technologies, small computers and Global Positioning System sets, and robots.
Phase II of Urban Warrior shifted the effort to California for a major Advanced Warfighting Experiment in March.
Sustaining the Transformation
The Marines realize that preparing for the 21 st Century requires more than new technologies. Ultimately, it is that young warrior in the foxhole in Kuwait who has to make the tactical decisions; the Corps still insists on placing its primary emphasis on the individual Marine and training and education.
It all begins with recruiting. Under the guidance of then-Major General Jack W. Klimp, the Marine Corps Recruiting Command continued to rack up an impressive track record in a tough market. For 40 consecutive months, Marine recruiters met and exceeded their stated requirements, exceeding both service and Pentagon goals for quality, enlisting 96.7% Tier I and more than 66% Category I-IIIA candidates. They accomplished their mission despite fewer resources for advertising, and with substantially fewer drug-moral waivers than the previous year.
The process whereby a young untested American is transformed into a fighting Marine is a much-studied mystery. As Lieutenant General Victor Krulak noted in First to Fight , published by the" "masters of a form of unfailing alchemy which converts unoriented youths into proud, self-reliant, stable citizens." This unfailing alchemy does not stop at boot camp. Anticipating that tomorrow's operations will place even more stress on junior enlisted Marines, the Commandant initiated a series of major training reforms to prepare his warriors. The process begins with the recruiting phase, but it continues to recruit training, and the cohesion and sustainment phases during a Marine's career. The recruit training phase culminates with the by now well-publicized Crucible, a grueling 54 hours of stress. Attention to cohesion keeps new Marines together as long as possible from their recruit training days to their initial specialty training and into operational units.
The Commandant made sustainment one of his key objectives for 1998. A key part of this phase was reinstilling in noncommissioned officers (NCOs) the responsibility for every aspect of their Marine's training and lives from the field to the barracks. In a special message to all his generals and commanders, the Commandant charged everyone with getting back to basics, and letting NCOs respond to the challenge of mentoring and sustaining the transformation of citizens to Marines. "We are restoring the noncommissioned officer to his rightful position in our Corps, and he or she will be our baseline for Transformation," General Krulak stated in an interview with the Navy Times . Key to this restoration is pushing authority and power down to the lowest level, down to the corporals and sergeants where, historically, the key combat leadership roles are met. Practical applications of this initiative will remain the responsibility of local commanders and their senior enlisted personnel—but the guidance is clear.
Resources and Programs
At the beginning of the current Commandant's tour, this column predicted that while General Carl Mundy's tenure was noted for defining the Corps' post-Cold War mission and structure, his successor would be assessed on convincing the Congress to provide funding to acquire the hardware needed for the next century. For all of the last decade, the Corps has been forced to devote a growing share of each year's budget to preserving manpower and maintaining its current equipment. Fleet Marine Force equipment is showing its age. The current amphibious tractor is 27 years old, and the venerable Vietnam-era CH-46 Sea Knight helicopter has been in service more then 35 years—some may serve 45 years before being replaced by MV-22 tilt-rotors. As all know, maintaining old equipment sets off a vicious cycle. For each year of his Commandancy, General Krulak has been alone among the service chiefs in highlighting the deficiencies of the Pentagon's flat spending, particularly for modernizing the force and its aging weapon systems and platforms. In response to a formal inquiry from Senator John McCain (R-AZ), General Krulak advised him that today's Corps was ready, ". . . however, the current fiscal environment has forced us to take a 'Band-Aid' approach to investment in order to fully support short term readiness. This comes at the expense of the long-term wellness of the Corps as we continue to kick the modernization can down the road."
Over the past three years, forthright testimony has garnered support from the Hill for key programs such as the Corps' Chemical Biological Incident Response Force and the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory, as well as funding for the smaller—but morale-boosting—Marine Enhancement Program. This program has fielded an improved combat infantryman's boot, an integrated load-bearing vest and modular pack system, better all-weather clothing and shelter systems, and new body armor. Congressional support for such programs is the result of the Corps' recognized frugality. The trick has been getting Congress to open up the pocketbook, to begin to modernize the Corps with the bigger-ticket items required to execute Operational Maneuver from the Sea (OMFTS).
These require substantial funding, particularly given the suppressed level of spending over the past year, which has created a backlog of requirements. Over the past few years, the Corps has documented a steady-state procurement account of about $1.2 billion annually to preserve its approved force structure. Congress has helped with focused increases, but neither the administration or the Congress has come through. Thus, on 29 September 1998, during a much publicized readiness hearing at which the Joint Chiefs were chastised by members of the Senate Armed Services Committee for not keeping them advised on readiness woes in the operating forces, General Krulak was alone in being able to remind the Committee that he had been forthright throughout his tenure and once again testified: "I repeat that our present defense budget does not adequately meet the requirements of today's Marine Corps. We are ready today, but, in order to maintain readiness under the current budgetary shortfall, and those of previous years, we are effectively mortgaging the readiness of tomorrow's Marine Corps."
The fiscal year 1999 budget request and the approved funding level begin to approach the required $1.2-billion annual level, but do little to help the Corps climb out of the rut created by the shortfalls of the past several years. Marines note that smoothing out the bow waves created by this rut would require another half a billion dollars each year across the Future Years Defense Program. The fiscal year 1999 request fared well in the Pentagon and on the Hill in 1998; it did not get the Corps out of the rut, but it certainly raised it to the level where planners can see daylight. Congress increased the Marine investment accounts by $255 million, and added another $377 million to Navy-run accounts that support the Corps.
The increases come at a time when key programs such as the Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAAV) are emerging from their development stage. Designed to replace the current amphibious assault vehicle, the venerable AAV7A1, the AAAV also is a tracked armored personnel vehicle. Comparisons stop there however. Absolutely essential to the OMFTS concept, the new vehicle blends the attributes of a fighting vehicle with that of a high-speed assault craft. Its twin water jets that propel the vehicle at speeds in excess of 25 knots in the water. The AAAV has a range of 25 miles in the water, and another 250 miles on land. This powerful advanced-technology package provides a flexible vehicle with utility across the conflict spectrum, and particularly in the littorals where the mid-range threat assessments put the Corps on the front edge. This was not an accident "When one looks at the need to conduct military operations in the littorals and applying the principles of maneuver warfare to amphibious operations," noted former program manager Colonel James Fiegley, "it was clear our current capability could never do the job, and what fell out was a need for a self-deploying, high speed amphibious vehicle."
It has passed its critical design review, and the first prototype is being assembled at the AAAV Technology Center in Woodbridge, Virginia, for a scheduled roll-out next month. In May, Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen presented a Packard Excellence in Acquisition Award to the Program Office for its integrated production team concepts, cost reduction initiatives, and its revolutionary use of modeling and simulation for virtual prototyping and design. The program underwent a second transition phase this year as Colonel Fiegley was promoted, and handed over the program to Colonel Blake J. Robertson. The Corps plans on buy 1,013 vehicles, and begin fielding them in 2006.
The lightweight 155-mm howitzer (LW 155) program ran into difficulties and the Marine shifted management responsibilities from Textron to the United Kingdom-based Vickers, LTD., the original designer. Meeting performance and cost requirements proved a major challenge, and Vickers took over the program to assist the Corps in meeting its operational needs, forcing a one-year delay in funding and eventual fielding of the system needed to replace the aging M198 in the force. A total of 450 LW 155s are programmed, and fielding is planned for 2003.
The third leg in the OMFTS mobility triad is the MV-22 Osprey tiltrotor. In his annual aviation assessment, General Terrence R. Dake, now the Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps, observed: "Tactically, the speed, combat radius, payload and survivability features of the tiltrotor greatly expand the littoral maneuver space. This tactical advantage allows greater standoff distances, provides greater operational tempo, and reduces both the operational risk, and most of all friendly casualties in battle. This combat multiplier allows Marines to strike deeper and quicker; it provides Navy ships adequate standoff distance in response to [antiship] missiles, underwater mines, and other developing threats . "
This joint program is a success story. Four aircraft are undergoing testing at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland, and shipboard trials commenced earlier this year. The tiltrotor was approved for low-rate initial production in 1997, and the full production decision is slated for late 2000. The projected initial operating capability is during fiscal year 2001. Eventually, the Corps will field a total of 22 operational squadrons, with 18 Active force and 4 Reserves. All key- performance parameters for both the Marine and Special Operations Command variants are being met or exceeded.
Other key Marine Aviation programs include the Joint Strike Fighter, the Complementary Low Altitude Weapons System (CLAWS), Vertical Take Off and Landing UAVs, and mid-life upgrades to the AH-1W and UH-IHN helicopter fleets to keep them operational through 2020. The success of these programs remains more dependent upon available resources than any technological breakthrough.
In large organizations, the essence of leadership is an apparent paradox. On one hand, a leader seeks to preserve an existing culture—the ethos and core competencies that make every institution different. In this role, leaders are sustainers of crucial values, customed responses and rituals. At the same time, an institutional leader also must bring about change, often significant, to the comfortable procedures and paradigms that define how an organization functions. In this role, effective leaders are agents of change and actively work against complacency and the status quo. General Krulak understands these paradoxical roles, and has excelled at both. The transformation process works to ensure that the Corps' enduring values are passed on to another generation. The future generates distinct challenges to these values and the honor of Marines. The Lab is working to ensure that innovative techniques and technologies are turned into operational capabilities as quickly as possible.
As General Krulak has stressed to both military and civilian audiences, "We must leave the Cold War and its associated relics behind." The evidence suggests that the Marine Corps is on track.
Colonel Hoffman is a member of National Security Studies Group in Crystal City, Virginia.