The series of nuclear tests conducted by India in May—followed closely by Pakistan in response—has enormous implications for U.S. military and foreign policy and for the future role of the U.S. Navy. The U.S. government early considered the tests as assaults on its favored policy of nonproliferation and pressured Pakistan not to follow suit. The U.S. government apparently was surprised by the tests, and that surprise was taken as a major failure of U.S. intelligence. President Bill Clinton ordered economic sanctions against India, and threatened similar action if Pakistan tested a bomb—to no avail. It was generally agreed that the sanctions would be lifted if India agreed to stop testing, perhaps signing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.