Nuclear weapons caused something new in military strategy more than a half-century ago: Concepts based on threats to incinerate the planet. Hyper-rational models called “escalation ladders” explained how lower levels of conflict were connected to higher ones and vice-versa. At the highest levels, all-out intercontinental nuclear exchanges destroyed civilization for failure to heed the warnings of Armageddon. “Balance-of-terror” thinking now seems outrageous, but it worked! There was a “MAD” stability in Mutual Assured Destruction.