Commander William Earl Fannin, Class of 1945, Capstone Essay Contest
Biological warfare is not purely a 21st-century concern. Evidence dating back to 1918 reveals the use of biological agents in World War I. In his article in Nature , Mark Wheelis cites indications of "a covert German attempt to attack Norwegian reindeer with biological weapons to interfere with their use as draught animals to ferry British supplies across northern Norway to Russia." Nor was this an isolated incident; Norway and Argentina used anthrax and other bacteria "concealed in sugar cubes to feed intended victims," all of which were animals.