Keep Oral Histories coming through your tax-deductible donation now.

Korean War Material

Place an Order

- The beginning of the war in 1950 made demands on the resources of the 6th fleet, pp. 215-216

(ADM George W. Anderson, Jr. – Volume I)

- A number of the crew members of the destroyer Isherwood (DD-520) in 1952 were reservists recalled to active duty because of the Korean War, 271-273, 277-281

(CDR Paul H. Backus)

- Secretary of Defense Louis Johnson and the Korean struggle, 487-488; Korea was proof that World War II didn't end war, 490; Baldwin's review of intelligence reports on the war (the Inchon landing, whether the US knew the North was about to attack), 498; Baldwin's trip to Korea, 501-504; his information from U.S. Army Intelligence officer Barrett on Chinese units invading Korea, 504-508; naval aspects of war, 508-510; mines and minesweeping, 510-511; proposed use of atomic weapons, 512-513.

(Hanson W. Baldwin – Volume II)

- Moves by the various services to meet logistics concerns resulting from the outbreak of the war in 1950, 281-283; in the early 1950s Americans in Hawaii collected relief material and shipped it to the Korean people, 336-337; the Army and Marine Corps had different supply setups in Korea during the Korean War, 343-344

(RADM George W. Bauernschmidt)

- USS Tripoli (CVE-64) did a lot of operating in the early 1950's, pp.16-18;

(BMCM Carl Brashear)

- The Coast Guard during the war, p. 233;

(ADM Chester R. Bender)

- Began in 1950, 427; Navy's public information organization increased in size during, 430; need to increase number of airplanes for, 444; visited by National War College students in May 1953, 471-474

(RADM Roy S. Benson – Volume I)

- Shore bombardment at Wonsan in May 1953, pp. 473, 502

(RADM Roy S. Benson, Volume II)

- Burke gives background for use of Japanese minesweepers at Wonsan, 1-10; the North Korean attack, 170-173; the early battles, 175-176; the Pusan perimeter, 177; difference in Navy/Air Force concept of close air support, 177-178; UN forces had absolute control of sea around Korea, 185-186; jubilation after Inchon and Wonsan, 200; North Korean use of A-frame logistic system, 201-202; control exercises from Washington, 203; rapid advance of army northward after Wonsan – problems of the Navy in getting supplies in at Chinnampo, 205; the CinCUNC Intelligence network – Burke's comments, 209-210; Burke told CNO Sherman he had begun to save merchant ships with heavy lift cranes in case of need – if Red Chinese came down in great numbers, 213-214; positive proof of Chinese participation – some captured near Hungnam, 215; winter weather in N. Korea, 217-219; route of second army division, 220-221; evacuation of Hungnam, 222-224; Burke and his order that all personnel from Japan to Korea be checked out on handling weapons, 233-234

(ADM Arleigh Burke – Volume I, Special Series)

- Burke served on the Armistice delegation - Munsan-ni was headquarters – 95-97; Burke on the necessity to use power in negotiating with the communists, 97; Adm. Hill, asked him to write an article on Korea for PROCEEDINGS, 100; one of the most important negotiating points - where was the line to be that separates the two forces, 101-102; an illustration, 102-103; Gen. Hodges and Burke learned about the communist tricks, 101-108; JCS orders negotiators to accept present battle line as final line of demarcation, 109-114; Burke, back in Washington - talks to JCS, CNO and President Truman, 114-118;

Burke's speaking tour is de-railed, 120-122, 173-175; the paper Burke wrote for Adm. Fechteler on what we should do in Korea, 173-178, appendix; the story of Chief Yeoman George Guzowski at Munsan-ni, 187-189; use of methods of psychological warfare, 259-260; Burke's review of the Army's book – KOREA, 1950, 297-298; the use made of Colonel Drysdale and his Royal Marines, a commando unit, 319-320, 324

(ADM Arleigh Burke – Volume II)

- Demands made on the Com DesLant for ships, 309-310; strain on training schools to provide the personnel, 311-312, 315; use of battleships for coastal bombardment, 326-329; enemy mine laying, 331-332

(RADM Joshua W. Cooper)

- Canada's true position on the war not made public at the time, 257-258, 260; U.S. negotiator appreciated value of strong background in English and humanities, 274, 276; boys entered U.S. Naval Academy to avoid draft until Congress passed law requiring them to finish enlistment if they dropped out, 282

(RADM John F. Davidson)

- Truman and the Marine Corps incident, 203-209; Truman asked for help with the Marines, 205; the story of President Truman and MacArthur – their meeting on Wake Island, 211-215; MacArthur returned to the US, 215-217

(RADM Robert Lee Dennison)

- Duncan as planner with Atlantic Fleet surprised by outbreak, 342; build-up of the Navy, 343-344, 430

(ADM. Charles K. Duncan, Volume I)

- Dyer's desire to take part, 497, 504-505; served as Commander, UN Blockade and Escort Force, 506-521; use of Korean Navy with United Nations Force, 521-522

(VADM George C. Dyer)

- Blue Angels used for a time in combat, 547; six helicopters from HU-2 sent to Korea in 1950, 559-560, 577; advent of war pushed helicopter training from HU-2 to Pensacola and Memphis, 560, 577; effect on Aviation Personnel Plans Section, 581-584; value of air reserve, 583-584; impact of Air Force pilots, 588; reemphasized value of carriers, 590; armistice at end of war, 919-920, 925

(RADM Francis D. Foley, Volume II)

- CinCPacFlt interested in actions there, 206-207; role of Marines in the fighting, 231-232; possible use of atomic weapons, 232-233

(ADM Charles D. Griffin, Volume I)

- The Blue Angels demonstration flight team formed the nucleus of Fighter Squadron 191 when it was established for Korean War duty in 1950, 50-51; operations of VF-191 from the aircraft carrier Princeton (CV-37), 51-64; the Air Force operated a joint center that coordinated bombing targets for US aircraft, 60-61; limited air threat against US forces, 61-62; difficult weather conditions for aircraft operations, 62-63

(CAPT Arthur R. Hawkins)

- U.S. aircraft carriers not challenged during war, p. 187

(ADM John J. Hyland, Jr., Volume I)

- Hyland felt there should have been greater rotation of naval personnel who were sent to Korea, rather than sending some people over several times, 374; Air Force exercised undue control over Navy air, 379

(ADM John J. Hyland, Jr., Volume II)

- Irvin tried to get U.S. subs involved - went to Tokyo - succeeded in getting several detailed as coastal observers, pp. 308-309

(RADM William D. Irvin)

- Jackson picked as chief of staff to Rear Admiral Freddie McMahon (Carrier Division 5), 172; mission of Task Force 77 in Korean waters, 173-174; attacks on coastal lines of supply, 174-177; Jackson's discussion of naval strategy in the Korean conflict, 181-182; cooperation of foreign navies, 185-187

(VADM Andrew M. Jackson)

- Need for intelligence officers, pp. 270-271

(VADM Felix L. Johnson)

- Calling up the ready reserves, 117-119, 128-131; the constant lookout for floating mines, 133; the use of former Japanese Imperial Navy men as pilots to bring U.S. ships into Japanese ports, 134;

(ADM Roy L. Johnson)

- Jones attached to First Marine Division for duty in Korea, 162-163; First Marine Division briefed on proposed landing while en route to Japan, 170; 1st Marines go to Kobe, Japan for trans-shipment to Inchon landing, 171; Jones's account of the landing, 171-176

(CAPT Glyn Jones)

- Eisenhower's use of Admiral Radford (CinCPac) to resolve the Korean problem for the election, 720-721; increased demands on N.A.S. Corpus Christi, 807-810; operations of TF 77 of Seventh Fleet, 827-828; beginnings of a limited war philosophy, 828-829; lack of coordination between Air Force and Navy, 830; Jurika assigned by Radford (CinCPac) to head the Evaluation Group to make permanent records with analysis of every one of naval and marine operating units in Korean War, 860-867; trip of Gen. Van Fleet – Jurika as naval member of delegation objected to general's recommendations for naval units, 894-899; Wilfred McNeil's inspection trip to Korea in 1953, 926-927;

(CAPT Stephen Jurika Jr., Volume II)

- Recall of reserve officers to active duty in the early 1950s, 151, 153; amphibious landings at Inchon and blasting the harbor at Hungnam, 153; East Coast UDT units not used in the war, 161; reference to few attempted prisoner escapes from camps during Korean War, 264

(CAPT Francis R. Kaine)

- Lee's service in Korea, command of tactical operations during the war, p. 210

(VADM Fitzhugh Lee)

- Cruiser Division Three, composed of the Helena (CA-75) and the Toledo (CA-133), deployed from California to Korea soon after the outbreak of war in June 1950, 135; the plan for the invasion of Inchon on 15 September 1950 was evidently widely known in Japan beforehand, 140-142; various facets of the invasion of Inchon, 142-149; precise navigation needed in connection with gunfire by the cruiser Toledo, 149-150; shore bombardment by the Toledo against positions in Korea, 151-156, 160-161, 168-170

(LCDR John W. Lee)

- Two escort carriers loaded Marine squadrons for deployment to Korea in July 1950, 150-151; planning done by staff of Commander U.S. Naval Force Far East in Tokyo, 151-153, 156-157; U.S. Navy surveyed bases in Japan for support in war effort, 152, 154; U.S. escort carriers provided close air support to help stabilize the Pusan perimeter in 1950 in the early stages of the Korean War, 155-157, 165; Inchon landings in September 1950, 157-160; liberty in Japan, 160-161, 167, 176-177, 181-182; close air support of ground troops, 162-166; reversal of fortunes in late 1950, 164-166; bombing of targets in North Korea by carrier-based attack planes in 1952, 181, 184-186; night air operations, 183; lack of opposition from enemy aircraft, 184; example of routine bombing operation, 184-186

(VADM Kent L. Lee, Volume I)

- Lee's recollections of standing watch in the Badoeng Strait (CVE-116) during the early days of the war, 634-636; Lee's recollections of the September 1950 Inchon landings from his vantage point as a carrier division staff officer on board the Badoeng Strait, 635-638; air operations, 636-638, 649-650, 653-660

(VADM Kent L. Lee, Volume II)

- Timeliness for preserving U.S. Navy and Marine Corps missions against dissolvement, 165; Cruiser Division Three bombarded Wonsan, 177-179; carrier operations, 179-180; description of site of truce talks at Panmunjom, 182-185; prisoners of war discussed during Korean War truce talks, 183, 185, 188-191; North Koreans coveted helicopters used by American delegation at truce talks, 184; personnel at truce talks, 185-186, 188-189, 195; issue of voluntary repatriation of Communist prisoners of war complicated Korean War peace talks, 189-194; negotiations hampered by U.S. initiatives from Washington, 192-193; UN peace delegates harassed at initial meetings at Kaesong, 196-197; U.S. delegation, 201; US Army general in charge of captured Communists in Korean War is taken by his prisoners and when released, demoted, 205

(VADM Ruthven E. Libby)

- Tour of duty in Korea (based in Sasebo), 213-214; promotion to assistant readiness officer for Pacific Fleet's destroyer force, 221-222

(VADM William P. Mack – Volume I)

- Command of the transport Lenawee (APA-195), pp. 218-219

(VADM Kleber S. Masterson)

- Battleship New Jersey (BB-62) participated, 164-173; coastal train bombardment, 174-175

(VADM Charles L. Melson)

- Minter took command of Patrol Squadron 28 at Barbers Point, Hawaii, 244-245; problems of 15 new ensigns assigned when the squadron was half through the training cycle, 246-249; squadron deployed in March, 1951 for Japan, 250; orders changed from Atsugi to Itami (Osaka), 250-251, 254-255; initial missions out of Itami, 256-257; weather reports to the 7th fleet, 258-259; reconnaissance, 256-260; night interdiction work with marines in Korea, 261-266; operated out of K-9 (Pusan), 266-267, 270-271, 276

(VADM Charles S. Minter, Jr. – Volume I)

- USS Hollister (DD-788) ordered to Western Pacific and Korean conflict, 125-126; Korean conflict, 125-143, 169; Miller's account of the rescue of a downed aviator in mined waters, 128-132, 156;

(RADM George H. Miller)

- Rear Admiral Edward C. Ewen served as Commander Task Force 77, during 1950-1951, 96-97, 112, 150-160, 165, 169, 185, 217; F9F-2 Panther the first U.S. jet used on carriers in quantity, during Korean War, 129; Commander Fleet Air Alameda during Korean War, 169-173, 176

(VADM Gerald E. Miller, Volume I)

- Amphibious Group One sent to Japan in spring of 1950 to train troops, p. 89

(CAPT John V. Noel)

- Had only a limited impact on Navy recruiting in the early 1950s, 72; reactivation of the destroyer Trathen (DD-530) in 1951-52, 82-83, 86-87; Trathen operations off Korea's east coast in 1952-53, 83-85, 88-89; comparison of Korean War-era officers with those of World War II, 94

(RADM Jackson K. Parker)

- Operational Development Force developed solutions to specific problems during the conflict, 72-73; white phosphorus shells used during war against wooden vessels, 73

(VADM Raymond E. Peet)

- Impact on the Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics, 184-185; did not have much effect on Sixth Fleet operations in the early 1950s, 213-214; Commander Seventh Fleet carried a large staff on board his flagship during the war, 222-223

(ADM Alfred M. Pride)

- Recruiters aided in the process of recalling reservists to active duty in 1950 to take part in the war, 73, 206-209; Reagan served in an amphibious boat unit in Coronado, California and Japan during the latter part of the war, 72-75, 174-176

(Mr. John W. Reagan)

- President Harry S. Truman's involvement in negotiations with the North Koreans, 129-130; the firing of General Douglas MacArthur in 1951 for insubordination, 130-131; possibility of using nuclear weapons, 131; in 1950, early in the war, Marines and Turks appeared to do much of the fighting, 133-134; Marine Corsair pilots from the escort carrier Badoeng Strait (CVE- 116) provided close air support to ground troops in 1952-53, 141-144

(VADM David C. Richardson)

- The unreadiness of the U.S. military to respond when the war broke out in June 1950 led to the ouster of Secretary of Defense Louis Johnson, pp. 374-375, 410

(VADM Herbert D. Riley)

- Fleet Evaluation Group, Pacific formed to investigate why U.S. was caught off guard by the North Korean attack in June of 1950, 281-285; Central Intelligence Agency had intelligence regarding possible North Korean attack in mid-1950 but did not act on it, 300

(CAPT Joseph J. Rochefort)

- U. S. Coast Guard helped in the formation of the Korean Coast Guard; became eventually the present South Korean Navy, p. 179

(ADM Edwin J. Roland)

- The Pickerel (SS-524) was the first submarine sent to Korea after war broke out there in 1950, 149-150; damaged engines in high-speed transit to Japan, 150; patrol off Taiwan and mainland China in 1950, 150-151; patrol off the Soviet Union in 1950, 152-154; US submarine photo reconnaissance operations off Wonsan, Korea, in September, 1950, 153-154; problems with supplies for the mess during the Korean War, 156-157;

(CAPT Paul R. Schratz)

- Secretary of State Dulles visited Korea, 710, 716, 718; Sebald accompanied General Matthew Ridgway, 738-740; Malik's statement, 748-749; an armistice, 749, 753-754; Secretary Nitze comes to Japan (1951) - discussion of proposed armistice, 755; VADM Turner Joy named as Chief Armistice negotiator, 755; subject of discussion between Pres. Truman and Gen. MacArthur on Wake Island, 756-763; the 38th parallel and China's concern, 767

(CAPT William J. Sebald – Volume II)

- Sharp uses Korea as example of what to avoid in negotiations with communists, pp. 427-428

(ADM U. S. Grant Sharp, Volume II)

- Advent of the war in 1950 brought a sharp turn-around in the amount of personnel training the Navy needed, pp. 120-121

(ADM Harold E. Shear)

- Took command of USS Iowa (BB-61), 234-235; Smedberg and the running of trials in San Francisco Bay, 270-273; his orders to enter San Diego Harbor - his refusal to Admiral Sprague, 274-275; 415; Smedberg given command to take her out of mothballs and into the Korean conflict orders directly from CNO Sherman, 424; problems with obtaining trained men for 16-inch turrets, 426-427; 428-429; tribulations in San Francisco Bay and in San Diego, 430-433; her mission to bombard Korean coast -.fire support to U. S. Marines, 434-435; various targets dealt with, 438-440; use of agents on shore, 442; 449-450; the hazardous run to Pusan Harbor, 456-459; 460-461;

(VADM William R. Smedberg III – Volume I)

- The inconclusive nature of the Korean War, 225-227; North Korean use of mines, 228, 233; the use of battleships and their 16-inch shells, 230-232; use of foreign naval units, 234-235

(VADM John V. Smith)

- Coast Guard rendered assistance (1952) in Air Force/Navy rescue efforts, p. 251

(ADM Willard J. Smith)

- When returning from the Korean War to San Diego in the summer of 1951, the crew of the aircraft carrier Princeton (CV-37) selected a girl with muscular dystrophy as homecoming queen, 177-179; operations of the Princeton and her air group during the ship's 1952 deployment to Korea, 180-188; limitations on bombing of North Korea, 182; rescue of downed aviators from North Korea, 183-187; Naval Reserve aviators who had served in World War II again performed capably during the Korean War, 188-189; early relief of Captain Walter Rodee, USS Essex(CV-9), in September, 1952, 190-191; the aircraft carrier Boxer (CV-21) had a serious fire on board in August 1952 while off Korea, 191; use of the "pinwheel" technique to dock the Essex at Yokosuka, Japan, in the early 1950s, 192-193; 236-246, 272-273

(VADM Paul Stroop)

- Thach took command of USS Sicily (CVE-118) in San Diego, outbreak of Korean War (June 25, 1950), 514-515; invasion of South Korea (June 25, 1950), 515; Thach outlines reasons why invasion of north became inevitable, 516-517; USS Sicily became part of Carrier Division under RADM Ruble, 519; a happy ship, 519; sails from San Diego - first time Thach had handled a ship since he qualified as top watch officer in 1936, 521; the journey to Western Pacific, 521-523; a good sonar, 524; instructed by Adm. Radford to proceed to Yokosuka and pick up Marine squadron VMF-214 (Black Sheep Squadron) to provide close air support for troops, 531-537; lack of close air support in Korea – Sicily took Marine Squadron on board to supply, 531-532; U.S. Air Force not too interested in subject of close air support – placed great credence in big bombers, 532-533, 534-535; formation of the JOC (Joint Operations Center) at Taegu, 535-536; Marine Squadron VMF-214 joined the Sicily at Kobe, 537-538; emergency departure, 539-540; flexibility of Thach's orders, 540; flying close air support off Inchon, 540-541; close action support off Inchon, 540-543; Sicily gave Close Air Support to British cruisers in approaches to Inchon, 541; story of pilot who spotted tank repair facility near Seoul, 541-542, 546; members of Marine Squadron VMF-214 acted as air controllers for marines in front lines – rotating back to Sicily, 544, 547-550; Sicily and Badoeng Strait ordered to drop napalm on Wolmi-do (Sept. 10), 552; Inchon landing, 552-556, 557-558; her encounter with typhoon, 553-554, 561-563, 567-70; enemy use of tanks, 557; techniques used against them, 558-559, 562-563, 567-568; exploits of Marine Squadron VMF-214, 558-560, 576-577; return of Seoul to South Koreans, 563-566, 531-566; use of the pin wheel, 571-572; operation of Sicily after Inchon, 575-576; Sicily put in at Wonsan to offload Marine Squadron, 575-576; picked up ASW squadron on Guam and returns to Japanese waters, 578-579; sudden order to re-embark Sicily at Hungnam, 579-580; Hungnam, Korea, 579-581, 583; 587; the "ambush busters", 584-585; Sicily flew missions for the 8th Army, 587-588; Thach's comments on close air support, 587-588; ordered to offload ASW squadron at Yokosuka – re-embarked Marine squadron at Hungnam to Inchon area, missions for the 8th Army, 587, 589; new squadron assigned after her refit in the U.S., 589-590; Task Group 95.1 - a United Nations Force, 590-591; attempts to recover damaged MiG near the communist line, 593-598; Captain Schoech relieved Thach as skipper, 599

(ADM John S. Thach – Volume II)

- Amphibious Group Two participation in Korean War, pp. 779-780

(RADM Kemp Tolley)

- The destroyer Harry E. Hubbard (DD-748) was reactivated from mothballs in 1950 and sent to Korean waters for combat duty the following year, pp. 53-58

(ADM Harry D. Train II)

- Experience with Russian mines triggered establishment of a mine command and a small minesweeping fleet, pp.247, 275

(RADM Kenneth Veth)

- Reactivation of mothballed destroyers in 1950-51 for war service, 262-263; shore bombardment by the destroyer Yarnell (DD-541) in 1951, 268-269

(RADM Norvell G. Ward)

- Used Russian- or Chinese-supplied mines against United Nations forces during the Korean War in the early 1950s, 166-168, 363; Rear Admiral Frederick Entwistle, Commander Operational Development Force in the early 1950s, sent his staff officers to witness Korean War operations firsthand to validate the command's work, 190-193; war operations led to the idea of the usefulness of small gunboats of the type later used in Vietnam, 192-193; reaction in Tokyo to President Harry Truman's firing of General Douglas MacArthur as Far East commander in April 1951, 193-195

(RADM Odale D. Waters, Jr.)

- Changed the direction and purpose of Management Committee, 297, 299; destroyers from the Atlantic Command participated, 314-315

(VADM Charles Wellborn, Jr.)

- Role of the Atlantic Fleet Cruiser Force in supporting the war effort in the early 1950s, 198-200; the destroyer Clarence K. Bronson (DD-668) had a slight collision with the escort carrier Point Cruz (CVE-119) during refueling in 1953, 215-216; patrolled off Korea during the distribution of released prisoners of war following the armistice in July 1953, 217-218; some ship crew members seemed poorly motivated as the war wound down, 220-222; some of the destroyers that served off Korea came from the Atlantic Fleet, 224-225

(VADM Thomas R. Weschler – Volume I)

- State of the war, Withington's visit to the front lines, 123-124

(RADM Frederic S. Withington)

COMPILED AND RESEARCHED BY: MICHAEL VANDEREEDT,
BROADNECK HIGH SCHOOL, ANNAPOLIS, MARYLAND, JULY 1999

To obtain copies of this material, please contact:

U.S. Naval Institute
Oral History Program
291 Wood Road
Annapolis, MD 21402-5034

Phone: 1-800-233-8764
Fax: (410)269-7940
Email: oralhistory@usni.org

 

 


 
 

Conferences and Events

2015 WEST Conference

Tue, 2015-02-10 - Thu, 2015-02-12

Co-sponsored by AFCEA International and the U.S. Naval Institute, West 2015 is the largest event on the West Coast for...

2015 U.S. Naval Institute Member Event

Ultimate Skybox at The Diamond View Tower

View All

From the Press

Blog Talk Radio Interview

Tue, 2014-12-30

Why Become a Member of the U.S. Naval Institute?

As an independent forum for over 135 years, the Naval Institute has been nurturing creative thinkers who responsibly raise their voices on matters relating to national defense.

Become a Member Renew Membership