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The 2012 History Conference is hosted by the U.S. Naval Institute and the U.S. Naval Academy with support from The William M. Wood Foundation.
The 2012 U.S. Naval Institute History Conference will be held in Alumni Hall at the U.S. Naval Academy, which is located in Annapolis, MD.
Personal vehicles will not be permitted on the U.S. Naval Academy campus.
All visitors over the age of 16 must have a valid government issued picture ID.
COMPLIMENTARY PARKING - (for all attendees)
Guests should enter at GATE 5 of the Navy-Marine-Corps Stadium off of Taylor Ave. Tell the attendant you are there for the US Naval Institute - Cyber Security Conference.
Free bus transportation will be provided by Annapolis Bus (Towne Transport) to Alumni Hall on the U.S. Naval Academy campus and returning to the Navy-Marine Corps Memorial Stadium on a continuous loop beginning at 7:30AM until 4:00PM.
DIRECTIONS TO THE NAVY-MARINE CORPS MEMORIAL STADIUM
If you are using GPS or map search please use the following address:
511 Taylor Ave.
Annapolis, MD 21401
FROM POINTS NORTH:
From I-95-South exit onto I-695-East and then take the I-97-South exit. Follow I-97 south until it merges into Route 50 East toward Annapolis. Take Exit 24, Rowe Blvd, and bear right (south) at the bottom of the exit ramp. Follow directions "From Route 50" below.
FROM POINTS SOUTH:
Take I-95-North, MD Route 2 North or U.S. Route 301 North to Route 50. Travel east to Annapolis. Take Exit 24, Rowe Blvd, and bear right (south) at the bottom of the exit ramp and then follow directions "From Route 50" below.
FROM POINTS WEST:
Follow Route 50 East from Washington, D.C. towards Annapolis. Take Exit 24, Rowe Blvd, and bear right (south) at the bottom of the exit ramp. Then follow directions "From Route 50" below.
FROM POINTS EAST:
Follow Route 50 West toward Annapolis to Exit 24B, Rowe Blvd and follow the directions "From Route 50" below.
FROM ROUTE 50:
From Route 50, follow Rowe Blvd to a right turn at the second stop light onto Taylor Ave and follow the signs to a right turn into the Blue Parking Lot.
Morning Keynote: Gen James Cartwright, USMC (Ret.), Former Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and The Inaugural Harold Brown Chair in Defense Policy Studies Center for Strategic and International Studies
Opening the U.S. Naval Institute’s 2012 annual history conference “The History and Future Challenges of Cyber Power” at Alumni Hall on the grounds of the U.S. Naval Academy with the morning keynote segment was former Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff retired Gen. James Cartwright.
Cartwright was regarded as the Pentagon’s top thinker on cyber warfare during his stint as the vice chairman. In his remarks, Cartwright emphasized why the cyber landscape is important – it is a medium that lies between sanctions and military power.
“The tools available to a president or nation in between diplomacy and military power were not terribly effective,” Cartwright explained. “And so from my perspective at that time what I was looking for was a set of tools that had broad range capability, had no regard really for strategic depth and could be used in a way that would make a more logical transition, may even avoid the use of kinetic force to reset diplomacy, reestablish the ability to negotiate with whoever you’re working with. So we were looking for a way to fill the gap.”
Some of the methods Cartwright had said he looked at were electromagnetic pulse, directed energy, electronic warfare and cyber – all speed-of-light means used to extend the life of the diplomatic activities.
“We need to be able to work at no strategic depth and very large strategic depth,” Cartwright said. “Speed-of-light weapons were well suited for those kinds of problems. That was really at the heart of what we were trying to get accomplished.”
Later, Cartwright stressed that with the evolution of the Internet, much of that work had been supplanted by the web’s dominance.
“Much of the work we had done was hijacked,” he said. “It was hijacked by the Internet. Everybody sees cyber as the Internet -- cyber is about your desktop computer, about who is stealing intellectual capital for denying your webpage or whatever it is. That’s not what we intended to help. It may be where we end up going, and that’s fine.”
The problem with some of that mindset, Cartwright explained, was it didn’t satisfy the ultimate mission of the Department of Defense (DoD).
“DoD is in the business for offense – that’s essentially what we are,” he said. “The defense of our networks from the standpoint to make sure they’re resilient and they’re available to us when we need them, but that is secondary to the ability to conduct fires in our mission.’
Cartwright said there is an important distinction to be made between the wired world and the wireless world. The wireless world, he explained, is where the DoD’s focus is maintained, whereas the wired world is something that falls within the purview of the intelligence community.
“DoD and offense cyber is 90 percent about the wireless world, not the wired world,” Cartwright said. “Most of what’s going on in the wired world is associated with the intelligence community: What’s in your directory, what do you have there, what’s your intent, how do you do operational preparation of the battle space. All of those activities generally are occurring in the wired world. We live in the wireless world. The world is moving on the commercial sector to the wireless world. That’s where we do business.”
The former vice chairman offered up a simple definition of “cyber” as it pertains to the military.
“From my perspective, ‘cyber’ is about taking a waveform in the electromagnetic spectrum, any waveform and coding on it a vehicle that transports where it is you want to go and putting on the back of that a payload that whatever it is you want to have done,” he said.
Cartwright said what was being done with cyber warfare existed on three levels: tactical, strategic and operational. He added that people don’t necessarily see it like that, but instead from a “purely strategic” point of view.
“You do not want to go purely strategic in this environment,” Cartwright explained. “That’s my opinion. People may have a different opinion. That’s the way I see it.”
One of the final key points Cartwright made was there seemed to be a prevailing concern that once one initiates a certain method in cyber warfare, the cat will be out of the bag and it will soon become obsolete and force something new to be developed. But that is the case with any means of warfare he explained.
“We have rifles and bullets,” Cartwright said. “People have known that for a long time. That doesn’t stop us from going into conflict. That doesn’t stop us from doing what we need to do. That’s not the way you do business on the offensive side of the equation.”
Panel: Combating Cyber Warfare: The Evolution of Alliance Between the Public and Private Sector
The first panel discussion focused on the cooperation between the public sector (the intelligence and military for the sake of this discussion) and a private sector that is often vulnerable to cyber warfare.
The segment was moderated by University of Maryland School of Public Policy Research Professor Dr. William Nolte, who reminded the audience just how much people are touched by computers and by extension potentially cyber warfare on a daily basis.
“I used to ask audiences like this, ‘How many of you have used a computer today?’” Nolte said. “And people caught on. The easier question is, ‘How many have not used a computer today,’ meaning how many of you have not driven a car, or in some cases turning on your stove? You use your iPhone certainly. And this event I think has really taken us all by storm.”
Participating in Nolte’s panel was Dr. Michael Warner, the command historian for U.S. Cyber Command of the U.S. Department of Defense. Warner’s claimed that he is the only practicing “trained historian” in this field and explained his role a historian.
“Federal historians are those people who have to say to the boss, ‘Sir, ma’am --- the problem is actually much harder than you realize and it’s much more complicated, too,’” Warner said. “So on that cheery note, that may be why there are so few federal historians because that is our job to bring this unwelcomed news to people.”
Warner noted some of the highlights of the military’s role in computer security going back to 1966. He explained that at one time it was thought to be a grand accomplishment in the 1970s that the National Security Agency had over 100 computers, which then comprised over five acres of floor space.
But as things progressed, he said that as pointed out in the 1972 declassified Anderson Report, the so-called Trojan Horse virus would be a threat to cyber security and as it turned out, it was correct years in advance.
The federal government seemed to begin taking cyber warfare seriously with the 1983 release of the movie “War Games” viewed by then-President Ronald Reagan, and inspiring a generation of hackers.
“Apparently people at the time thought if they did this in their bedrooms at home, that Ally Sheedy would come over and drink Tab with them, too,” Warner said.
That he said was what led to executive action by Reagan, a so-called “Hollywood” president. And led to where we are today, with much of that settled.
“In short, the landscape, the paradox which we view these issues had been set for a very long time,” Warner said. “By the time we got into arguing information warfare, information operations, computer security and cyber security in the 1990s, the paradigms had already been made, had already been set for us in the 1980s.”
Next up on the panel was Steven R. Chabinsky, the senior vice president of legal affairs and chief risk officer for the firm CrowdStrike. Chabinsky served in the Federal Bureau of Investigation as the chief of the cyber intelligence. At the FBI, he led the department’s efforts on terrorism, foreign intelligence, and criminal matters regarding cyber issues.”
Chabinsky gave a less-than-favorable outlook on the status quo, saying it might sound provocative but with regards to security, the current strategy leaves much to be desired.
“We are following a failed security strategy when it comes to cyber,” he said. “And because it is so fundamentally failed in its inception, regardless of how much energy, effort or resources we put into it, we will not become more secure.”
Chabinsky remarked that there are playbooks in place for security and risk management, but they haven’t been realized.
“I’m going to suggest to you we have not followed successful security models,” he said. “So it comes as no surprise that every year our security falls further and further behind.”
He said there were three ways of going about tackling this issue – reduce the threat, reduce the vulnerability or reduce the consequences.
“Classically stated, the formula is risk equals threat times vulnerability, times consequences,” Chabinsky explained.
In his formula, if one of those components is zero, you zero out the formula, meaning that if you zero out the threat, then the vulnerability and consequences are no longer offer a risk, but he explained you typically can’t get one of those areas to zero.
Chabinsky said this type of threat is analogous to a potential missile strike, in that New York City and Washington aren’t threatened since potential threats know what consequence will come if they were to strike. And it isn’t because the country is impenetrable to a strike. The same applies to this landscape, he explained.
And as he pointed out, all cyber security strategies focus on what he called vulnerability mitigation and the consequences have been secondary in mitigation efforts.
“That model needs to reverse itself,” Chabinsky said. “There is no way we are going to win a cyber-security effort on defense. We have to go on the offensive.”
Chabinsky went on to add an offensive tack begs the question if the private sector’s cyber security efforts includes the right to defend property without first going to law enforcement.
“It is universally accepted in the physical world that you have the right to defend property,” he said. “You have the right to keep someone off your property or recover your property without going to law enforcement when necessary if proportionate.”
Next up on was William B. Nelson, the chief executive officer and president for the Financial Services Information Sharing and Analysis Center, Inc.
Nelson emphasized what the private sector was doing both on the civil action and in taking criminal action against threats. There had been some successes including Microsoft civil efforts against the so-called Rustock botnet that was behind 2 billion spam emails per day.
“We think we’ve had some success,” Nelson said noting they prefer to spin-down versus spin-up threats. “Your money is safe in your bank or credit union.”
Ruppersberger admitted that in Washington there was a partisan environment that “has got to change,” but that it was his committee that was functioning in a bi-partisan manner under the helm of Michigan Republican Rep. Mike Rogers, the chairman and a former CIA officer.
Ruppersberger is part of the so-called “Gang of 8,” which entitles him to access to intelligence matters others aren’t, heightening his role as a legislator in this area.
He noted that trade secrets, compromised by outside threats, cost U.S. companies $300 billion in 2011. But what the federal government can do to help mitigate that threat is limited by law and he is attempting to change that legislatively with the Cyber Sharing Intelligence Protection Act.
“Right now federal law prohibits the intelligence community from sharing the classified cyber threat intelligence with companies.”
The aim he said was to create cooperation between tier one Internet providers like AT&T, Verizon, Comcast and Qwest.
However, despite the bi-partisan progress he said they made on the House side, the bill was threatened by the White House and eventually stalled out in the Senate. Ruppersberger said he hoped to get that effort back in order, but said it might not happen until after the upcoming election.
Lunch Keynote: The Art of Deception: Are You in Danger of Being ‘Conned’? Hear the world’s most famous former hacker share his perspective on the threat of “social engineering” – A highly effective type of attack that exploits the human element of corporate security, featuring Mr. Kevin Mitnick, computer security consultant, author and hacker
Giving the luncheon keynote speech was Kevin Mitnick, a convicted felon that has now turned his focus away from committing cybercrime to preventing it.
Mitnick was released from prison in January 2002, but was banned from using the Internet until January 2003. Now reformed, Mitnick is working as an IT security consultant and heads his own firm Mitnick Security Consulting, LLC.
According to Mitnick, his field is not as much about the electronic side of the issue, but about the psychological side and that falls into the realm of what he has defined as “social engineering.”
Mitnick defined social engineering as “a form of hacking that relies upon influence, deception and/or psychological manipulation to persuade unwitting people to comply with a request.”
He explained that as a teenage amateur radio operator, he would interfere with the McDonald’s drive-thru window speaker with a series of pranks, and that is what opened his eyes to the potential of deception through electronic means.
Mitnick said it was his experience that “people are loose with information. He rattled off a number of examples of studies conducted to see just what people will do to part with their password, which to him is one of the many access points into seeking out vulnerabilities in information systems.
But other examples he provided were the use of peer-to-peer networks Gnutella, which has been used to exploit credit card data and other sensitive financial information.
It isn’t just relegated to exploiting vulnerabilities through electronic means that exposes victims to what he called “social engineering.” Other means of gaining access to someone’s information system could be done through “dumpster diving” for information, or even by manually calling by phone for password resets and eventually attacking the victim’s computer.
Mitnick concluded to avert these kind of attacks, a “keep it simple stupid” approach is suggested with processes designed to keep the user in charge of the decision making process.
Panel: Forging the Links for Cyber Operations: Command, Control & Policy
The final panel of the conference dealt with establishing the coexistence of all the elements involved with cyber security, from command down as it pertains to the military. Dr. Lawrence J. Cavaiola, the distinguished visiting professor of political science and cyber security at U.S Naval Academy, moderated the final session.
Cavaiola began by reminding the audience of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET), which would lay the groundwork for the Internet as we know it today. Cavaiola at the time said he thought it was “neat,” but made the point that things have come a long way.
Since then, the military’s efforts in cyber space have also come a long way, but it isn’t without challenges including how to create an effective application of governance.
“Governance is about power,” Cavaiola said. “It’s about decision-making and it’s about accountability. Those are things that we who are in the military or are associated with the military need to live by every day – exercise power, decision-making and accountability. So we need to develop a system of governance of the application of cyber power.”
Speaking first was RDML Diane E. H. Webber, USN, the deputy commander of the U.S. Fleet Cyber Command/Deputy Commander, U.S. 10th Fleet.
Webber echoed Cavaiola’s sentiments about governance, highlighting the need for accountability to determine what the vulnerabilities are.
“Governance is about making decisions about what goes on in the networks, what the architecture will be – again those inspections reveal a lot about how we got to where we are today,” Webber said, noting the need for accountability.
But all too often, in governance of networks, certain operations are ill-categorized and not thought of as something that can exist in both realms of offense and defense.
“I would argue it is one line, one continuum,” Webber said of the eagerness to classify operations as offense or defense. “And too often we put operations for networks in those two bins and it doesn’t make sense.”
James Lewis, the director and senior fellow of the technology and public policy program at the Center for Strategic & International Studies acknowledged similar classifications issues with command and control, noting that it “has not been precise.”
“We’re in the process of normalizing or routinizing the use of cyber attack or cyber techniques to gain military advantage,” Lewis said.
He said it was something that needed to be in place to better give a benefit over our opponent.
“Cyber has both strategic and tactical uses and it is easy to conflate them,” he explained. “But if you start breaking them apart, you can see there’s one set of command and control you might need for strategic decisions and understanding what you want for tactical decisions.”
But he added, when it comes to authorizing certain cyber actions, particularly those beyond the jurisdiction of the United States, it should be left up to the president, who as he said it could come down to “starting a war with China” on this front.
Lewis added that there needs to be some new thinking because what has been applicable with regards to physical military action does not apply to cyber. One example he offered was deterrence, which in cyber he said “deterrence is a dud.”
RADM Elizabeth L. Train, USN, the director for intelligence for J2 of the Joint Staff, took the discussion in a different direction, noting cyber space’s role in warfighting and that there is a need for this emphasis.
“Cyber space is a dominant domain here, whether you like it or not, for warfighting, for conduct of business,” Train said. “And it’s most targeted in that business development realm. That’s were really all the innovation and technology occurs. So we have to be mindful of that as we back up that warning piece in how that can advantage an adversary.”
Train reiterated one of the earlier panel discussions, the cooperation between the private and public sectors, needed in determining a proper response.
“The interdepencies and the independencies we absolutely have to appreciate,” she said. “That requires new authorities and sharing policies across both the private and government sectors and I think in terms of the relationship with the intelligence community and the policy community we have to stay tightly partnered so the intelligence community can understand where those thresholds are for activities in the cyber domain that require a U.S. government response.”
Finally, closing out the panel was MG Jennifer L. Napper, USA, the director of plans and policy for the U.S. Cyber Command.
Napper explained her focus on preparation. She used the 2007 distributed denial of service (DDOS) cyber attacks on Estonia government websites as example of why this was important. According to Napper, when the people of Estonia saw their government was unable to keep up with these cyber attacks, they lost the trust and confidence in the government.
“Sometimes the technical effect is not nearly as important as the real effect across your government,” Napper said.
With that in mind, Napper said it was a number-one priority to have “trained and ready forces,” which she said had to be distinguished from a physical readiness or a battlefield.
“We have to think a little differently of how we recruit, train, retain and certify folks,” Napper said. “And that’s all going to be very, very important in the future.”
Other priorities Napper spelled out were a defensible architecture, command and control with one person at the top of the government and global situation awareness, all priorities of cyber command awareness.
Further Coverage of the 2012 History Conference
Advanced registration for the 2012 History Conference is now closed.
Onsite registration opens at 8:00am on Tuesday, October 16, 2012 at Alumni Hall at the U.S. Naval Academy, which is located in Annapolis, MD.
To expedite on-site registration, we ask that that you please print and fill out a registration form (Click Here)and bring it with you to the conference.
Please contact Karen Kaufman for registration questions.
Cyberspace: Malevolent Actors, Criminal Opportunities and Strategic Competition
A Strategic Studies Institute-Matthew B. Ridgeway Center colloquia at the University of Pittsburgh. Accomplished in partnership between the U.S. Army War College and the University of Pittsburgh.
The Navy's Newest Warfighting Imperative
Proceedings Magazine - October 2012
An Enemy Without Boundaries
Proceedings Magazine - October 2012
Made In China
Proceedings Magazine - April 2011
A Most Dangerous Link
Proceedings Magazine - October 2009
Naval Institute Press Books
DAY OF LIGHTNING, YEARS OF SCORN
Walter C. Short and the Attack on Pearl Harbor
Charles R. Anderson
AIR RAID: PEARL HARBOR!
Recollections of a Day of Infamy
How Navies Learned to Fight Smarter Through Three World Wars
EYES IN THE SKY
Eisenhower, the CIA and Cold War Aerial Espionage
Dino A. Brugioni
SEIZING THE ENIGMA
The Race to Break the German U-Boat Codes 1939 -1945
MOST SECRET AND CONFIDENTIAL
Intelligence in the Age of Nelson
Steven E. Maffeo
|8:00AM - 9:00AM||Continental Breakfast |
|9:00AM - 9:15AM||Welcome Remarks |
|9:15AM - 10:00AM||Morning Keynote |
|10:00AM - 10:15AM||Break |
|10:15AM - 11:30AM||Panel: Combating Cyber Warfare: The Evolution of Alliance Between the Public and Private Sector |
|11:30AM - 12:00PM||Break |
|12:00PM - 1:30AM||Lunch Keynote: The Art of Deception: Are You in Danger of Being ‘Conned’? Hear the world’s most famous former hacker share his perspective on the threat of “social engineering” – A highly effective type of attach that exploits the human element of corporate security. |
|1:30PM - 1:45PM||Break |
|1:45PM - 3:00PM||Forging the Links for Cyber Operations: Command, Control & Policy |
|3:00PM - 3:10PM||Closing Remarks |
Former Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and The Inaugural Harold Brown Chair in Defense Policy Studies Center for Strategic and International Studies
General James Cartwright retired from active duty on 1 September 2011, after 40 years of service in the United States Marine Corps. Unique among Marines, General Cartwright served as Commander, U.S. Strategic Command, before being nominated and appointed as the 8th Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the nation’s second highest military officer. General
Cartwright served his four year tenure as Vice Chairman across two Presidential administrations and constant military operations against diverse and evolving enemies. He became widely recognized for his technical acumen, vision of future national security concepts, and keen ability to integrate systems, organizations and people in ways that encouraged creativity and sparked innovation in the areas of strategic deterrence, nuclear proliferation, missile defense, cyber security, and adaptive acquisition processes.
Born in Rockford, IL, he attended the University of Iowa and was commissioned a Second Lieutenant of Marines in 1971. He was both a Naval Flight Officer and Naval Aviator who flew the F-4 Phantom, OA-4 Skyhawk, and F/A-18 Hornet. In 1983 he was named Outstanding Carrier Aviator of the Year by the Association of Naval Aviation. General Cartwright graduated with distinction from the Air Command and Staff College, received a Master of Arts in National Security and
Strategic Studies from the Naval War College, completed a fellowship with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and was honored with a Naval War College Distinguished Graduate Leadership Award. General Cartwright currently serves as the inaugural holder of the Harold Brown Chair in Defense Policy Studies for the Center for Strategic & International Studies. He is also a member of Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee which provides independent, informed advice to the Secretary of Defense on long-term, enduring issues central to strategic planning. In addition, General Cartwright serves as a member of The Raytheon Company Board of Directors and as a defense consultant for ABC News.
General Cartwright is also an advisor for several corporate entities involved in global management consulting; technology services and program solutions; predictive and Big Data Analytics; and advanced systems engineering, integration, and decision-support services. He serves as an advisor to the Boards of Directors for Accenture Federal Services, Enlightenment Capital, Logos Technologies and Opera Solutions. General Cartwright is also affiliated with a number of professional organizations to include the Aspen Strategy Group, The Atlantic Council, Nuclear Threat Initiative, and The Sanya Initiative.
Computer security consultant, author and hacker
With more than thirty years of experience in exploring computer security, Kevin Mitnick is a largely self-taught expert in exposing the vulnerabilities of complex operating systems and telecommunications devices. His hobby as an adolescent consisted of studying methods, tactics, and strategies used to circumvent computer security, and to learn more about how computer systems and telecommunication systems work.
In building this body of knowledge, Kevin gained unauthorized access to computer systems at some of the largest corporations on the planet and penetrated some of the most resilient computer systems ever developed. He has used both technical and non-technical means to obtain the source code to various operating systems and telecommunications devices to study their vulnerabilities and their inner workings.
As the world’s most famous (former) hacker, Kevin has been the subject of countless news and magazine articles published throughout the world. He has made guest appearances on numerous television and radio programs, offering expert commentary on issues related to information security. In addition to appearing on local network news programs, he has made appearances on 60 Minutes, The Learning Channel, Tech TV’s Screen Savers, Court TV, Good Morning America, CNN’s Burden of Proof, Street Sweep, and Talkback Live, National Public Radio, and as a guest star on ABC’s spy drama “Alias”. Mitnick has served as a keynote speaker at numerous industry events, hosted a weekly talk radio show on KFI AM 640 in Los Angeles, testified before the United States Senate, written for Harvard Business Review and spoken for Harvard Law School. His first best-selling book, The Art of Deception, was published in October 2002 by Wiley and Sons Publishers. His second title, The Art of Intrusion, was released in February 2005. Mr. Mitnick’s autobiography was released in August 2011 and is a New York Times best-seller.
Distinguished Visiting Professor of Political Science & Cyber Security, U.S Naval Academy
Dr. Lawrence J. Cavaiola is President of Cavaiola & Associates, LLC, a consulting and advisory services company focusing on the defense and security sectors, as well as corporate leadership and management.
Dr. Cavaiola holds a number of other positions in addition to his company work. He is Chairman of the Board of Austal USA, LLC and Responsive Geospatial Systems, LLC; and serves on the Boards of Aegis Defense Services, LLC; Applied Communication Sciences, Inc.; and NTT Data Federal Services, Inc. Dr. Cavaiola is also Distinguished Visiting Professor of Political Science and Cyber Security at the United States Naval Academy. He is a member of the Chief of Naval Operations Executive Panel and has been awarded the Certificate of Director Education by the National Association of Corporate Directors.
Prior to starting his own company, Dr. Cavaiola held senior positions in both industry and government in the United States. He was Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Thales North America, Inc., the US operations of the global professional electronics and security company Thales. Before joining Thales he was the founding President of the Northrop Grumman Ship Systems Full Service Center, and also served as Vice President for Strategic and Business Development for Northrop Grumman’s shipbuilding sector, including service under Litton Industries ownership. Prior to joining Litton, Dr. Cavaiola held senior positions in business and technology development and strategic planning with both Loral Corporation and Lockheed Martin.
Before moving to the private sector, Dr. Cavaiola held senior government positions with the United States Congress and the Department of Defense. He served as Principal Analyst in the Congressional Budget Office; as a Professional Staff Member and Deputy Staff Director for the Committee on Armed Services of the United States House of Representatives; as Deputy Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition Operations; and as Special Assistant to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense.
Dr. Cavaiola spent ten years on active duty with the United States Navy, serving aboard surface combatant ships and as an Assistant Professor at the Naval Postgraduate School. He retired as a Captain in the United States Naval Reserve. His awards include the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service, the Department of the Navy Superior Public Service Award, and the Legion of Merit. He graduated with distinction from the United States Naval Academy and holds a Master of Science and Ph.D. in Operations Research from The Johns Hopkins University, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa.
Dr. Cavaiola and his wife, Maureen, reside in Maryland and have three grown children.
Senior Vice President of Legal Affairs and Chief Risk Officer for CrowdStrike
Steven Chabinsky is Senior Vice President of Legal Affairs and Chief Risk Officer (CRO) for CrowdStrike. In this role, Steve advises the company on all cyber legal, privacy, and reputational issues across the business from product development to execution. Prior to joining CrowdStrike, Steve had a distinguished career with the Federal Bureau of Investigation where, as Deputy Assistant Director, he attained the highest ranking civilian (non-law enforcement officer) position in the FBI's Cyber Division. In that capacity he helped oversee all FBI investigative strategies, intelligence analysis, policy development, and major outreach efforts that focused on protecting the United States from cyber attack, cyber espionage, online child exploitation, and Internet fraud. For over ten years, Mr. Chabinsky helped shape and draft many of the most significant U.S. national cyber and infrastructure protection strategies, to include the Homeland Security Act of 2002, the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace of 2003 and, in 2008, National Security Presidential Directive 54, which includes the Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative. Between 2007 and 2009, Mr. Chabinsky served in the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) in various capacities, including Acting Assistant Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Cyber, Chairman of the National Cyber Study Group, and Director of the Joint Interagency Cyber Task Force. In these roles, he led national intelligence efforts to coordinate, monitor, and provide recommendations to the President of the United States regarding implementation of America’s cyber strategy. Prior to his ODNI tour, Mr. Chabinsky served as chief of the FBI’s Cyber Intelligence Section where he organized and led the FBI’s analysis and reporting on terrorism, foreign intelligence, and criminal matters having a cyber threat nexus.
Mr. Chabinsky joined the FBI in 1995 as an attorney in the Office of the General Counsel where he initially focused on employment law and personnel litigation. In 1998, Mr. Chabinsky was selected as the Principal Legal Advisor to the multi-agency National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC) and became Senior Counsel to the FBI's Cyber Division upon its creation in 2002, during which time he rose in prominence as one of the nation's foremost authorities in the complex areas of cyber law, surveillance law, information sharing, and privacy. Mr. Chabinsky played a prominent role in the national expansion of InfraGard, a critical infrastructure partnership between the private sector, academia, and government agencies. Mr. Chabinsky helped develop InfraGard from an organization with roughly two hundred unvetted members located in three cities into its current size of over 50,000 vetted members meeting in over 85 cities. Between 2002 and 2003, Mr. Chabinsky also served in the White House Transition Planning Office for the creation of the Department of Homeland Security, overseeing all legal issues associated with standing up DHS' Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection Directorate.
Prior to joining the FBI, Mr. Chabinsky worked as an associate attorney in the law firm of Simpson Thacher & Bartlett in New York City practicing complex litigation including insurance and reinsurance contract disputes, class action product liability, and internal investigations. Mr. Chabinsky clerked for the Honorable Judge Dennis G. Jacobs (now Chief Judge) of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and holds his undergraduate and law degrees, both with honors, from Duke University. He has testified before the House and Senate, and is a frequent keynote speaker and guest lecturer. His ideas have been featured in print news media, he has appeared on radio and television, and he is the author of the article "Cybersecurity Strategy: A Primer for Policy Makers and Those on the Front Line," published in the peer-reviewed Journal of National Security Law and Policy. He is the recipient of numerous awards and recognitions, including the National Security Agency's bronze medallion for inspired leadership, the ODNI's bronze medallion for Collection, and the Rank Award of Meritorious Executive conferred by the President of the United States for unwavering leadership and sustained extraordinary performance. In August 2012, Mr. Chabinsky was selected as one of Security magazine's "Most Influential People in Security."
Director and Senior Fellow, Technology and Public Policy Program, Center for Strategic & International Studies
James Andrew Lewis is a senior fellow and director of the Technology and Public Policy Program CSIS. Before joining CSIS, he worked at the Departments of State and Commerce as a Foreign Service officer and as a member of the Senior Executive Service. Lewis’s recent work has focused on cybersecurity, including the groundbreaking report “Cybersecurity for the 44th Presidency,” space, and innovation. His current research examines the political effect of the Internet, strategic competition among nations, and technological innovation. Lewis received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago.
Director, Plans and Policy, U.S. Cyber Command
Major General Jennifer L. Napper became the Director of Plans and Policy, J-5, United States Cyber Command in September 2012.
Major General Napper’s military career began in 1980 when she was commissioned into the United States Army National Guard. She entered active duty in the Signal Corps in 1983 after graduating from Texas A&M University with a Bachelor of Science degree in Biology. She earned a Masters of Military Arts and Science from the Command and General Staff College in 1994 and a Masters in Strategic Studies from the Army War College in 2002. Her military education includes the Signal Corps Officer Basic and Advanced Courses, the Information Systems Staff Officer Course, the Command and General Staff College, and the Army War College.
Her previous assignments included: Commanding General, U.S. Army Network Enterprise Technology Command; Commanding General, 7th Signal Command (Theater); Brigade Commander, 7th Signal Brigade; 5th Signal Command in Mannheim, Germany where she deployed her unit in support of Operation IRAQI FREEDOM, and; Battalion Commander, 123rd Signal Battalion, 3rd Infantry Division at Fort Stewart, Georgia. Other assignments include: Deputy Commander, Joint Task Force—Global Network Operations, providing direct support to United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) for Global Information Grid (GIG) Network Defense; Director for Communications Systems, J-6, United States Pacific Command; G-6, 3rd Infantry Division and Multi-National Division (North) in Bosnia-Herzegovina; Assignment Officer in Signal Branch, United States Total Army Personnel Command, Washington, D.C.; Battalion S-3 and Executive Officer, 59th Signal Battalion, Fort Richardson, Alaska; Command Signal Officer, 32nd Army Air Defense Command, Darmstadt, Germany; S-3 and Company Commander, 124th Signal Battalion, 4th Infantry Division, Fort Carson, Colorado; Battalion Signal Officer, 1st Battalion, 80th Field Artillery, VII Corps, Aschaffenburg, Germany.
Major General Napper’s awards include the Distinguished Service Medal, Defense Superior Service Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster, Legion of Merit, Bronze Star, Meritorious Service Medal with 4 Oak Leaf Clusters, Army Commendation Medal, and Army Achievement Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster.
Chief Executive Officer and President, Financial Services Information sharing and Analysis Center Inc.
Bill Nelson is the President and CEO of the Financial Services Information Sharing and Analysis Center (FS-ISAC). The FS-ISAC is a non-profit association dedicated to protecting financial services firms from physical and cyber attacks. Members within the FS-ISAC include organizations from banks, credit unions, securities firms and insurance companies. The FS-ISAC fulfills its mission through the dissemination of trusted and timely information regarding physical and cyber security risks to its membership. In 2012, FS-ISAC joined with Microsoft and NACHA in a civil litigation action to disrupt the ZeuS, SpyEye and ICE IX botnets.
Before joining the FS-ISAC, Bill was the Executive Vice President of NACHA, The Electronic Payments Association from 1988 to 2006. Bill oversaw the development of the ACH Network into one of the largest electronic payment systems in the world, processing nearly 14 billion payments in 2005. He also oversaw NACHA’s rule-making, marketing, rules enforcement, education and government relations programs. Prior to joining NACHA, Bill held several treasury management and lending positions within the banking industry.
Research Professor, School of Public Policy, University of Maryland
William M. Nolte is the former director of education and training in the office of the Director of National Intelligence and chancellor of the National Intelligence University . He is a former Deputy Assistant Director of Central Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency. He was Director of Training, Chief of Legislative Affairs and Senior Intelligence Advisor at the National Security Agency. He also served as Deputy National Intelligence Officer for the Near East and South Asia during the Gulf War. He has taught at several Washington area universities, is on the board of CIA's Studies in Intelligence , and directed the Intelligence Fellows Program. He holds a B.A. from La Salle University and a Ph.D. from the University of Maryland.
U.S. Representative for Maryland, Committee on Intelligence
Congressman C.A. Dutch Ruppersberger is serving his fifth term in the United States House of Representatives for the citizens of Maryland’s 2nd District. Congressman Ruppersberger is known as a common sense consensus builder who works with Members from both sides of the aisle to get results for Maryland and the nation.
Congressman Ruppersberger was the first Democratic freshman ever appointed to the House Select Committee on Intelligence. The committee oversees the collection and analysis of intelligence information from all around the world to ensure our national security and prevent potential crisis situations — especially terrorist activity.
Congressman Ruppersberger was named Ranking Member of the Intelligence Committee in 2011. The Ranking Member is the senior-most member from the minority party and places Congressman Ruppersberger on the elite “Gang of Eight,” which refers to the four top members of the House and Senate Intelligence Committees along with the Senate Majority Leader, Senate Minority Leader, House Speaker and House Minority Leader. By law, the President must keep the Gang of Eight informed on our country’s most secret intelligence activities to maintain proper oversight. Previously, Congressman Ruppersberger chaired the Technical and Tactical Intelligence Subcommittee – which oversees the country’s space program, cybersecurity and signal intelligence agencies– for four years.
Congressman Ruppersberger previously served on the powerful Appropriations and Government Reform Committees. He also served on the House Armed Services Committee, where he worked to help keep our country safe and make sure our veterans at home and as well as our warfighters on the frontlines have the resources they need.
Maryland’s 2nd District includes parts of Baltimore City as well as Baltimore, Anne Arundel, Harford and Howard Counties. It is a vital center of trade and commerce for the state and national economy and includes the Port of Baltimore and the thousands of businesses and manufacturing concerns dependent on it. The 2nd District is also home to the National Security Agency, Fort Meade, federal Cyber Command, Aberdeen Proving Ground, the Coast Guard Yard at Curtis Bay and other installations essential to the country’s national security.
Creating jobs and improving Maryland’s economy is one of Congressman Ruppersberger’s top priorities. He is working hard to provide high-quality, affordable healthcare for everyone and help seniors purchase reasonably priced prescription drugs. The Congressman is also fighting to keep our country safe and get our first responders the funds they need to protect our communities and our families.
A former assistant state’s attorney in Baltimore County, Congressman Ruppersberger decided to run for office after a near-fatal car accident while investigating a drug trafficking case. Thanks to the dedication of doctors at the University of Maryland Shock Trauma Center, Congressman Ruppersberger survived and began campaigning for office to assist Shock Trauma after they saved his life. He remains an active supporter of the hospital, serving as Vice Chairman of its Board of Visitors. He also serves on the United States Naval Academy Board of Visitors.
Congressman Ruppersberger has served in public office for more than 27 years. He was elected to the Baltimore County Council in 1985 and again in 1989, chosen twice as council chairman. He was elected Baltimore County Executive in 1994 and 1998, and, under his leadership, the county was named one of the nation’s four best-managed counties by Governing Magazine.
A native of Baltimore City, Congressman Ruppersberger spent his summers as a lifeguard and police officer in Ocean City, Md. He attended Baltimore City College and the University of Maryland at College Park, where he played lacrosse. He earned his Juris Doctorate from the University of Baltimore Law School.
The Congressman has been married for 43 years to his high school sweetheart, the former Kay Murphy. Together they have two grown children, Cory and Jill, and three grandchildren, Camden, Parker and Libby.
Director for Intelligence, J2, Joint Staff
Rear Admiral Train was born in Honolulu, Hawaii, and grew up in Virginia and Washington D.C.
She graduated from the College of William and Mary and received her commission from Officer Candidate School in Newport, R.I. She was designated a Naval Intelligence Officer in 1984, and reported to Patrol Squadron (VP) 19 where she served as the air intelligence officer.
During her command tour, Train served as commander, Navy Marine Corps Intelligence Training Center and Center for Naval Intelligence. Train’s operational assignments include duty as deputy assistant chief of staff for Intelligence, Carrier Group Four; assistant chief of staff for Intelligence, Amphibious Group Two; and director for operations, Joint Intelligence Task Force-Combating Terrorism.
Train’s shore assignments include duty as aide to the Director of Naval Intelligence; deputy assistant chief of staff for Intelligence, Commander, U.S. Naval Surface Forces Pacific; operations officer, Joint Intelligence Center, Pacific; executive assistant to the Director for Intelligence, U.S. Pacific Command; deputy assistant chief of staff for Intelligence (Fleet Support) , Commander U.S. Pacific Fleet; director, Intelligence Community Management Division, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations; and executive assistant to the Director of Naval Intelligence, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations.
In Train’s previous flag assignment she served as director for Intelligence, U.S. Pacific Command.
Train assumed duty as the director for Intelligence (J2), Joint Staff, in August 2011. As the J2 she advises the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff on intelligence matters and is the national level focal point for intelligence support to Department of Defense (DoD) crisis operations and indications and warning intelligence within DoD.
RADM Train is a naval intelligence officer, joint specialty officer, a specialist in joint and strategic intelligence, and a qualified information dominance corps officer. She is a graduate of the National War College, with a Master of Science degree in National Security Strategy, and additionally earned a Master of Science in Strategic Intelligence from the Defense Intelligence College.
Command Historian for U.S. Cyber Command, U.S. Department of Defense
Dr. Michael Warner serves as the Command Historian for US Cyber Command. He has also written and lectured widely on intelligence history, theory, and reform. He teaches as an Adjunct Professor at American University’s School of International Service, and is on the board of editors of the journal Intelligence and National Security. Recent essays and volumes include: “Cybersecurity: A Pre-History,” Intelligence and National Security 27:5 (October 2012); “The Rise of the US Intelligence System,” in Loch Johnson, ed., The Oxford Handbook of National Security Intelligence (Oxford, 2010); and "Building a Theory of Intelligence Systems," in Greg Treverton & Wilhelm Agrell, eds., National Intelligence Systems: Current Research and Future Prospects, (Cambridge, 2009). His book The Rise and Fall of Intelligence will be published by Georgetown University Press in 2013.
Deputy Commander, U.S. Fleet Cyber Command/Deputy Commander, U.S. 10th Fleet
A native of Missouri, Rear Adm. Webber graduated summa cum laude, with honors, from William Jewell College with a Bachelor of Science degree in Music Education. In July 2012, she assumed duties as the Deputy Commander, U.S. Fleet Cyber Command/Deputy Commander, U.S. 10th Fleet. Previously, she was Director of Command and Control Systems (J6) at the North American Aerospace Defense Command.
Webber's operational tours include early assignments as an oceanographic watch officer at U.S. Naval Facility, Argentina, Newfoundland and commander, Oceanographic Systems, Pacific. She deployed as combat systems officer in USS George Washington (CVN 73) when the ship earned two Battle "Es," the Admiral Flatley Safety Award and the Battenberg Cup. During Operation Iraqi Freedom, she commanded U.S. Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station, Bahrain. Webber was assigned to Multi-National Forces, Iraq, as director, Communications and Information Systems (CIS) Coalition Force Plans/Joint Network Control Center (JNCC) and subsequently served as director, Communications Information Systems, 2nd Fleet.
Other tours include assignments as officer in charge at the Surface Ship Anti-Submarine Warfare Analysis Center, San Diego, and Communications Security Material Issuing Office, San Diego. Webber was then assigned as the Navy's enlisted advancement planner for the Enlisted Plans and Community Management Branch in the Bureau of Naval Personnel. Additionally, she served as executive officer, Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station, Washington. She has been the director of Operations and Readiness at commander, Naval Computer and Telecommunications Command as well as the operations officer and director, Global Network Operations and Space Center at Naval Network and Space Operations Command, Dahlgren. She also has served twice at OPNAV - as the executive assistant to the deputy chief of naval operations for Communication Networks (N6) and as the division director for Communications and Networks (N2/N6F1).
Webber holds a Master of Arts in Management from the University of Redlands (California) and a Master of Military Science from the United States Marine Corps Command and Staff College. She is a recipient of the Naval Historical Center's Admiral Samuel E. Morison Supplemental Scholarship and has completed her doctoral coursework in International Relations at Catholic University. She holds certificates in Chief Information Officer and Information Assurance from Information Resource Management College at National Defense University and Information Operations from Naval Postgraduate School.
Webber's personal awards include the Legion of Merit, the Defense Meritorious Service Medal, the Meritorious Service Medal, the Joint Service Commendation Medal, the Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal, the Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medal and numerous unit and campaign awards.